Volume 7 Issue 4
Oct.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Ana Marión Pérez-Chávez, María Melisa Alberti, Edgardo Albertó. Evaluation of ligninolytic activity in spent mushroom substrate from four cultivated mushrooms[J]. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts, 2022, 7(4): 288-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.09.001
Citation: Ana Marión Pérez-Chávez, María Melisa Alberti, Edgardo Albertó. Evaluation of ligninolytic activity in spent mushroom substrate from four cultivated mushrooms[J]. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts, 2022, 7(4): 288-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.09.001

Evaluation of ligninolytic activity in spent mushroom substrate from four cultivated mushrooms

doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.09.001
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail address: amperez@intech.gov.ar (A.M. Pérez-Chávez)
  • Received Date: 2022-06-03
  • Accepted Date: 2022-08-31
  • Rev Recd Date: 2022-08-25
  • Available Online: 2022-09-22
  • Publish Date: 2022-11-01
  • Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an abundant residue generated by the mushroom industry, which is mostly discarded. In this study, the SMS of four cultivated mushrooms were evaluated as potential sources of ligninolytic enzymes. Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. djamor and Ganoderma lucidum were cultivated in two different substrates to determine growth, mushroom yields and ligninolytic activity of laccase (Lac) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). Maximum activities in the SMS were 3.731 U/g Lac and 0.191 U/g MnP, both for P. eryngii. Colonized mushroom substrates were also analyzed, and higher activities were found in almost all samples. A correlation test between mushroom yields and ligninolytic activities of each culture was made, and we found that high enzymatic activity in the substrate did not result in high mushroom productivity or vice versa. The SMS was a good source of ligninolytic enzymes. Enzymatic activity depended on the mushroom species and its affinity to the substrate, and it was not influenced by the mushroom yields. Production of mushrooms in diverse lignocellulosic substrates is gaining interest, and obtaining ligninolytic enzymes from residual SMS is an excellent alternative in the circular economy concept.


  • Conflict of Interest  The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
  • loading
  • Albertó, E., 2008. Cultivo Intensivo de los Hongos Comestibles. Buenos Aires: Hemisferio Sur
    Albertó, E., 2017. Naturally Occurring Strains of Edible Mushrooms: A Source to Improve the Mushroom Industry: Technology and Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    Asgher, M., Sharif, Y., Bhatti, H.N., 2010. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes by Ganoderma lucidum IBL-06 using lignocellulosic agricultural wastes. Int. J. Chem. React. Eng. 8: 10.2202/1542-6580.2203
    Atila, F., 2019. Yield and fruit body properties of Pleurotus eryngii isolates grown on poplar sawdust supplemented with different additive materials. The J. Fungus 10, 106–113
    Azizi, M., Tavana, M., Farsi, M., Oroojalian, F., 2012. Yield performance of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt. : Fr. ) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), using different waste materials as substrates. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 14, 521–527 doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v14.i5.110
    Branà, M.T., Sergio, L., Haidukowski, M., Logrieco, A.F., Altomare, C., 2020. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 by a sustainable enzymatic extract from spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus eryngii. Toxins. 12, 1–13
    Carabajal, M., Levin, L., Albertó, E., Lechner, B., 2012. Effect of co-cultivation of two Pleurotus species on lignocellulolytic enzyme production and mushroom fructification. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 66, 71–76 doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2011.11.002
    Chang, S.T., 2008. Overview of mushroom cultivation and utilization as functional foods, in: Cheung, P.C.K. (Ed. ), Mushrooms as Functional Foods. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1–34
    Chauhan, P., Gupta, D., 2015. Bioconversion of low quality lignocellulosic agricultural waste into edible protein by Pleurotus djamor (Rumph) Boedijn. Int. J. Bio-resource Stress Manag. 6, 135–139 doi: 10.5958/0976-4038.2015.00029.9
    Ćilerdžić, J.L., Vukojević, J.B., Klaus, A.S., Ivanović, Ž. S., Stajić, M.M., 2018. Wheat straw: a promissing substrate for Ganoderma lucidum cultivation. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus. 17, 13–22 doi: 10.24326/asphc.2018.1.2
    Corrêa, R.C.G., da Silva, B.P., Castoldi, R., Kato, C.G., de Sá-Nakanishi, A.B., Peralta R.A., de Souza, C.G., Bracht, A., Peralta, R.M., 2016. Spent mushroom substrate of Pleurotus pulmonarius: a source of easily hydrolysable lignocellulose. Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 61, 439–448 doi: 10.1007/s12223-016-0457-8
    Cunha Zied, D., Sánchez, J.E., Noble, R., Pardo-Giménez, A., 2020. Use of spent mushroom substrate in new mushroom crops to promote the transition towards a circular economy. Agronomy 10, 1239 doi: 10.3390/agronomy10091239
    Elisashvili, V., Kachlishvili, E., Penninckx, M., 2008. Lignocellulolytic enzymes profile during growth and fruiting of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheat straw and tree leaves. Acta Microbiol. Immunol. Hung. 55, 157–168 doi: 10.1556/AMicr.55.2008.2.7
    Erkel, E.I., 2009. Yield performance of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst cultivation on substrates containing different protein and carbohydrate sources. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 4, 1331–1333
    Gaitán-Hernández, R., Cortés, N., Mata, G., 2014. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn. Braz. J. Microbiol. 45, 467–474 doi: 10.1590/S1517-83822014000200013
    Gaitán-Hernández, R., Salmones, D., Merlo, R.P., Mata, G., 2009. Evaluación de la eficiencia biológica de cepas de Pleurotus pulmonarius en paja de cebada fermentada. Rev. Mex. Micol. 30, 63–71
    Gupte, A., Gupte, S., Patel, H., 2007. Ligninolytic enzyme production under solid-state fermentation by white rot fungi. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 66: 611–614
    Han, M.L., An, Q., He, S.F., Zhang, X.L., Zhang, M.H., Gao, X.H., Wu, Q., Bian, L.S., 2020. Solid-state fermentation on poplar sawdust and corncob wastes for lignocellulolytic enzymes by different Pleurotus ostreatus strains. Bioresources 15, 4982–4995 doi: 10.15376/biores.15.3.4982-4995
    Jaramillo Mejia, S., Albertó, E., 2019. Incremento de la productividad de Pleurotus ostreatus mediante el uso de inóculo Como suplemento. Sci. Fungorum 49, e1243 doi: 10.33885/sf.2019.49.1243
    Jasińska, A., 2018. Spent mushroom compost (SMC)—Retrieved added value product closing loop in agricultural production. Acta Agrar. Debr., 185–202 doi: 10.34101/actaagrar/150/1715
    Ko, H.G., Park, S.H., Kim, S.H., Park, H.G., Park, W.M., 2005. Detection and recovery of hydrolytic enzymes from spent compost of four mushroom species. Folia Microbiol 50, 103 doi: 10.1007/BF02931456
    Kulshreshtha, S., 2019. Removal of pollutants using spent mushrooms substrates. Environ Chem Lett 17, 833–847 doi: 10.1007/s10311-018-00840-2
    Lechner, B.E., Albertó, E., 2011. Search for new naturally occurring strains of Pleurotus to improve yields. Pleurotus albidus as a novel proposed species for mushroom production. Revista Iberoamericana De Micología 28, 148–154
    Lechner, B.E., Papinutti, V.L., 2006. Production of lignocellulosic enzymes during growth and fruiting of the edible fungus Lentinus tigrinus on wheat straw. Process. Biochem. 41, 594–598
    Lee, Y.H., Chi, J.H., Kim, Y.H., Yu, S.H., 1999. Comparison in productivity of Pleurotus ostreatus sawdust spawn under different storage conditions. Korean J. Mycol. 27: 319–321
    Liao, C.S., Yuan, S.Y., Hung, B.H., Chang, B.V., 2012. Removal of organic toxic chemicals using the spent mushroom compost of Ganoderma lucidum. J. Environ. Monit. 14, 1983–1988 doi: 10.1039/c2em10910g
    Lim, S.H., Lee, Y.H., Kang, H.W., 2013. Efficient recovery of lignocellulolytic enzymes of spent mushroom compost from oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and potential use in dye decolorization. Mycobiology 41, 214–220 doi: 10.5941/MYCO.2013.41.4.214
    Ma, Y.H., Wang, Q.H., Sun, X.H., Wang, X.Q., Su, W., Song, N., 2014. A study on recycling of spent mushroom substrate to prepare chars and activated carbon. BioResources 9, 3939–3954
    MediumSasidhara, R., Thirunalasundari, T., 2014. Lignolytic and lignocellulosic enzymes of Ganoderma lucidum in liquid. Pelagia Res. Libr. Eur. J. Exp. Biol. 4, 375–379
    Montoya, S., Levin, L., 2015. Production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from three white-rot fungi by solid-state fermentation and mathematical modeling. African J. Biotechnol. 14, 1304–1317
    Oei, P., Zeng, H., Liao, J., Dai, J., Chen, M., Cheng, Y., 2008. Alternative uses of spent mushroom compost, in: Lelley, J.I., Buswell, J.A. (Eds. ), Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. GAMU GmbH, 231–245
    Ozcirak Ergun, S., Ozturk Urek, R., 2017. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by solid state fermentation using Pleurotus ostreatus. Ann. Agrar. Sci. 15, 273–277
    Pérez-Chávez, A.M., Mayer, L., Albertó, E., 2019. Mushroom cultivation and biogas production: a sustainable reuse of organic resources. Energy Sustain. Dev. 50, 50–60
    Phan, C.W., Sabaratnam, V., 2012. Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96, 863–873 doi: 10.1007/s00253-012-4446-9
    Rinker, D.L., 2017. Spent Mushroom Substrate Uses. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 427–454
    Roncero-Ramos, I., Delgado-Andrade, C., 2017. The beneficial role of edible mushrooms in human health. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 14, 122–128
    Royse, D.J., 1985. Effect of spawn Run time and substrate nutrition on yield and size of the shiitake mushroom. Mycologia 77, 756–762
    Rühl, M., Fischer, C., Kües, U., 2008. Ligninolytic enzyme activities alternate with mushroom production during industrial cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus on wheatstraw-based substrate. Curr. Trends Biotechnol. Pharm. 2, 478–492
    Savoie, J., Salmones, D., Mata, G., 2007. Hydrogen peroxide concentration measured in cultivation substrates during growth and fruiting of the mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 1337–1344 doi: 10.1002/jsfa.2854
    Silva, L., Dulay, R., Kalaw, S., 2018. Mycelial growth of pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamour) on banana sucrose gulaman and fruiting body production on banana-based substrate formulations. CLSU Int. J. Sci. Technol. 3: 24–32
    Simonić, J., Vukojević, J., Stajić, M., Glamočlija, J., 2010. Intraspecific diversity within Ganoderma lucidum in the production of laccase and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases during plant residues fermentation. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162, 408–415 doi: 10.1007/s12010-009-8833-3
    Singh, M.P., Vishwakarma, S.K., Srivastava, A.K., 2013. Bioremediation of direct blue 14 and extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi: Pleurotus spp. Biomed Res. Int. 2013, 180156
    Songulashvili, G., Elisashvili, V., Wasser, S.P., Nevo, E., Hadar, Y., 2007. Basidiomycetes laccase and manganese peroxidase activity in submerged fermentation of food industry wastes. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 41, 57–61
    Stajić, M., Persky, L., Friesem, D., Hadar, Y., Wasser, S.P., Nevo, E., Vukojević, J., 2006. Effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources on laccase and peroxidases production by selected Pleurotus species. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 38, 65–73
    Varnero, M.T., Quiroz, M.S., Álvarez, C.H., 2010. Utilización de residuos forestales lignocelulósicos Para producción del hongo Ostra (Pleurotus ostreatus). Información Tecnológica 21: 13–20
    Wu, F., Zhou, L.W., Yang, Z.L., Bau, T., Li, T.H., Dai, Y.C., 2019. Resource diversity of Chinese macrofungi: edible, medicinal and poisonous species. Fungal Divers. 98, 10.1007/s13225-019-00432-7 doi: 10.1007/s13225-019-00432-7
    Xie, C.L., Yan, L., Gong, W.B., Zhu, Z.H., Tan, S.W., Chen, D., Hu, Z.X., Peng, Y.D., 2016. Effects of different substrates on lignocellulosic enzyme expression, enzyme activity, substrate utilization and biological efficiency of Pleurotus eryngii. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 39, 1479–1494 doi: 10.1159/000447851
    Zervakis, G.I., Koutrotsios, G., Katsaris, P., 2013. Composted versus raw olive mill waste as substrates for the production of medicinal mushrooms: an assessment of selected cultivation and quality parameters. Biomed Res. Int. 2013, 546830
    Zhang, R.H., Li, X.J., Fadel, J.G., 2002. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw. Bioresour. Technol. 82, 277–284
    Zurbano, L.Y., Bellere, A.D., Savilla, L.C., 2017. Mycelial growth, fruiting body production and proximate composition of Pleurotus djamor on different substrate. CLSU Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2, 20–30
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索


    Article Metrics

    Article views (39) PDF downloads(2) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint