Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Sreesha Malayil, Athira Nair Surendran, Kunal Kate, Jagannadh Satyavolu. Utilization of Residual Fatty Acids in Matter Organic Non-Glycerol from a Soy Biodiesel Plant in Filaments used for 3D Printing[J]. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2023.04.001
Citation: Sreesha Malayil, Athira Nair Surendran, Kunal Kate, Jagannadh Satyavolu. Utilization of Residual Fatty Acids in Matter Organic Non-Glycerol from a Soy Biodiesel Plant in Filaments used for 3D Printing[J]. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2023.04.001

Utilization of Residual Fatty Acids in Matter Organic Non-Glycerol from a Soy Biodiesel Plant in Filaments used for 3D Printing

doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2023.04.001

Authors acknowledge the financial support from Kentucky soyabean board KY, USA (Contract No. 01-013- 022) and Owensboro grain, Owensboro, Kentucky, USA for proving the technical support and soy MONG samples.

  • Available Online: 2023-04-24
  • Matter organic non-glycerol (MONG) is a considerable waste output (20%−25% of crude glycerol) typically landfilled by soy biodiesel plants. In this work, soy MONG was characterized for potential use as a copolymer to produce filaments for 3D printing with an intent to add value and redirect it from landfills. As a copolymer, MONG was evaluated to reduce the synthetic polymer content of the natural fiber composites (NFC). Even though the general thermal behavior of the MONG was compared to that of a thermoplastic polymer in composite applications, it is dependent on the composition of the MONG, which is a variable depending on plant discharge waste. In order to improve the thermal stability of MONG, we evaluated two pretreatments (acid and acid+peroxide). The acid+peroxide pretreatment resulted in a stabilized paste with decreased soap content, increased crystallinity, low molecular weight small chain fatty acids, and a stable blend as a copolymer with a thermoplastic polymer. This treatment increased formic acid (17.53%) in MONG, along with hydrogen peroxide, led to epoxidation exhibited by the increased concentration of oxirane (5.6%) evaluating treated MONG as a copolymer in polymer processing and 3D printing.


  • loading
  • Adhikari, S., Illukpitiya, P., 2021. Small-scale biodiesel production for on-farm energy security: a sustainable income diversification opportunity for oilseed producers. Biofuels 12, 605-614.
    Bagheri, S., Julkapli, N.M., Yehye, W.A., 2015. Catalytic conversion of biodiesel derived raw glycerol to value added products. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 41, 113-127.
    Bagnato, G., Iulianelli, A., Sanna, A., Basile, A., 2017. Glycerol production and transformation: a critical review with particular emphasis on glycerol reforming reaction for producing hydrogen in conventional and membrane reactors. Membranes 7, 17.
    Balla, V.K., Kate, K.H., Tadimeti, J.G.D., Satyavolu, J., 2020a. Influence of soybean hull fiber concentration on the water absorption and mechanical properties of 3D-printed thermoplastic copolyester/soybean hull fiber composites. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 29, 5582-5593.
    Balla, V.K., Tadimeti, J.G.D., Kate, K.H., Satyavolu, J., 2020b. 3D printing of modified soybean hull fiber/polymer composites. Mater. Chem. Phys. 254, 123452.
    Balla, V.K., Tadimeti, J.G.D., Sudan, K., Satyavolu, J., Kate, K.H., 2021. First report on fabrication and characterization of soybean hull fiber: polymer composite filaments for fused filament fabrication. Prog.Addit. Manuf. 6, 39-52.
    Błażek, K., Kasprzyk, P., Datta, J., 2020. Diamine derivatives of dimerized fatty acids and bio-based polyether polyol as sustainable platforms for the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethanes. Polymer 205, 122768.
    Carretero, D.S., Huang, C.P., Tzeng, J.H., Huang, C.P., 2021. The recovery of sulfuric acid from spent piranha solution over a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) Ti-RuO2 electrode. J. Hazard. Mater. 406, 124658.
    Cherif, A., Boukhchina, S., Angers, P., 2019. GC-MS characterization of cyclic fatty acid monomers and isomers of unsaturated fatty acids formed during the soybean oil heating process. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 121, 1800296.
    Chilakamarry, C.R., Mimi Sakinah, A.M., Zularisam, A.W., Pandey, A., 2021. Glycerol waste to value added products and its potential applications.Syst. Microbiol. Biomanufacturing 1, 378-396.
    Demirbas, A., 2007. Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel. Energy Policy 35, 4661-4670.
    Demirbas, A., 2009a. Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels. Energy Convers. Manag. 50, 14-34.
    Demirbas, A., 2009b. Biofuels securing the planet’s future energy needs. Energy Convers. Manag. 50, 2239- 2249.
    Feng, G.D., Hu, L.H., Ma, Y., Jia, P.Y., Hu, Y., Zhang, M., Liu, C.G., Zhou, Y.H., 2018. An efficient biobased plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride) from waste cooking oil and citric acid: synthesis and evaluation in PVC films. J. Clean. Prod. 189, 334-343.
    Glisic, S.B., Pajnik, J.M., Orlović, A.M., 2016. Process and techno-economic analysis of green diesel production from waste vegetable oil and the comparison with ester type biodiesel production. Appl. Energy 170, 176-185.
    Goldsmith, P.D., 2008. Economics of soybean production, marketing, and utilization. Soybeans. Amsterdam:Elsevier, 117-150.
    Hou, J., Zhang, P.D., Yuan, X.Z., Zheng, Y.H., 2011. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from soybean, jatropha and microalgae in China conditions. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 5081-5091.
    Jahromi, H., Adhikari, S., Roy, P., Shelley, M., Hassani, E., Oh, T.S., 2021. Synthesis of novel biolubricants from waste cooking oil and cyclic oxygenates through an integrated catalytic process. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 9, 13424-13437.
    Kachel-Jakubowska, M., Matwijczuk, A., Gagoś, M., 2017. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil. Int. Agrophysics 31, 175-182.
    Lehuger, S., Gabrielle, B., Gagnaire, N., 2009. Environmental impact of the substitution of imported soybean meal with locally-produced rapeseed meal in dairy cow feed. J. Clean. Prod. 17, 616-624.
    Mahamuni, N.N., Adewuyi, Y.G., 2009. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method to monitor soy biodiesel and soybean oil in transesterification reactions, petrodiesel-biodiesel blends, and blend adulteration with soy oil. Energy Fuels 23, 3773-3782.
    Matwijczuk, A., Zając, G., Karcz, D., Chruściel, E., Matwijczuk, A., Kachel-Jakubowska, M., ŁapczyńskaKordon, B., Gagoś, M., 2018. Spectroscopic studies of the quality of WCO (waste cooking oil) fatty acid methyl esters. BIO Web Conf. 10, 02019.
    McBain, J.W., Sierichs, W.C., 1948. The solubility of sodium and potassium soaps and the phase diagrams of aqueous potassium soaps. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 25, 221-225.
    Mena-Cervantes, V.Y., Hernández-Altamirano, R., Tiscareño-Ferrer, A., 2020. Development of a green onestep neutralization process for valorization of crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel. Environ. Sci. Pollut.Res. 27, 28500-28509.
    Monteiro, M.R., Kugelmeier, C.L., Pinheiro, R.S., Batalha, M.O., da Silva César, A., 2018. Glycerol from biodiesel production: technological paths for sustainability. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 88, 109-122.
    Morales, M.T., Rios, J.J., Aparicio, R., 1997. Changes in the volatile composition of virgin olive oil during oxidation: flavors and off-flavors. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 2666-2673.
    Morodo, R., Gérardy, R., Petit, G., Monbaliu, J.C.M., 2019. Continuous flow upgrading of glycerol toward oxiranes and active pharmaceutical ingredients thereof. Green Chem. 21, 4422-4433.
    Mungroo, R., Pradhan, N.C., Goud, V.V., Dalai, A.K., 2008. Epoxidation of canola oil with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by acidic ion exchange resin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85, 887-896.
    Omidghane, M., Bartoli, M., Asomaning, J., Xia, L., Chae, M., Bressler, D.C., 2020. Pyrolysis of fatty acids derived from hydrolysis of brown grease with biosolids. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 27, 26395-26405.
    Ong, H.C., Tiong, Y.W., Goh, B.H.H., Gan, Y.Y., Mofijur, M., Rizwanul Fattah, I.M., Chong, C.T., Alam, M.A., Lee, H.V., Silitonga, A.S., Mahlia, T.M.I., 2021. Recent advances in biodiesel production from agricultural products and microalgae using ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges. Energy Convers.Manag. 228, 113647.
    Perea-Moreno, M.A., Samerón-Manzano, E., Perea-Moreno, A.J., 2019. Biomass as renewable energy:worldwide research trends. Sustainability 11, 863.
    Prajapati, H.N., Dalrymple, D.M., Serajuddin, A.T.M., 2012. A comparative evaluation of mono-, di- and triglyceride of medium chain fatty acids by lipid/surfactant/water phase diagram, solubility determination and dispersion testing for application in pharmaceutical dosage form development. Pharm. Res. 29, 285- 305.
    Rajkumar, K., Muthukumar, M., Sivakumar, R., 2010. Novel approach for the treatment and recycle of wastewater from soya edible oil refinery industry: an economic perspective. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 54, 752-758.
    Soares Dias, A.P., Catarino, M., Gomes, J., 2021. Co-processing lard/soybean oil over Ca-based catalysts to greener biodiesel. Environ. Technol. Innov. 21, 101220.
    Srivastava, A., Prasad, R., 2000. Triglycerides-based diesel fuels. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 4, 111-133.
    Tamagno, S., Aznar-Moreno, J.A., Durrett, T.P., Vara Prasad, P.V., Rotundo, J.L., Ciampitti, I.A., 2020.Dynamics of oil and fatty acid accumulation during seed development in historical soybean varieties. Field Crops Res. 248, 107719.
    Tanaka, A., 1969. Synthesis of dl-aleprylic acid. J. Lipid Res. 10, 681-682.
    Toldrá-Reig, F., Mora, L., Toldrá, F., 2020. Trends in biodiesel production from animal fat waste. Appl. Sci. 10, 3644.
    Vladimír, M., Matwijczuk, A.P., Niemczynowicz, A., Kycia, R.A., Karcz, D., Gładyszewska, B., Ślusarczyk, L., Burg, P., 2021. Chemometric approach to characterization of the selected grape seed oils based on their fatty acids composition and FTIR spectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 11, 19256.
    Vorum, H., Brodersen, R., Kragh-Hansen, U., Pedersen, A.O., 1992. Solubility of long-chain fatty acids in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Biochim. Biophys. Acta BBA Lipids Lipid Metab. 1126, 135-142.
    Wu, L.K., Chen, K.Y., Cheng, S.Y., Lee, B.S., Shu, C.M., 2008. Thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfuric acid. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 93, 115-120.
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (41) PDF downloads(2) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint