2020, Vol. 5, No. 2

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Review
Processing and Valorization of Cellulose, Lignin and Lignocellulose Using Ionic Liquids
Zhenghao Xia, Jinyang Li, Jinming Zhang, Xiaocheng Zhang, Xuejing Zheng, Jun Zhang
2020, 5(2): 79-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.001
Abstract:
Cellulose, lignin and lignocellulose are important bioresources in the nature. Their effective and environmentally friendly utilization not only reduces dependence on fossil resources but also protects the environment. Recently, a class of novel eco-friendly solvents, ionic liquids, is employed to dissolve and process these bioresources. In this mini-review, we summarized the recent advances of processing and valorization of cellulose, lignin and lignocellulose in ionic liquids. It is expected that this up-to-date survey provides a comprehensive information of this field, and accelerates the development and utilization of the renewable plant biomass resources.
Calcium Carbide and its Recent Advances in Biomass Conversion
Siew Ping TEONG, Yugen ZHANG
2020, 5(2): 99-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.002
Abstract:
Calcium carbide (CaC2) is a sustainable source of acetylene which plays an important role in organic synthesis due to its active triple bonds and terminal protons. Solid CaC2 has several advantages over acetylene gas such as easy handling, convenient storage and transportation. The CaC2 is considered as a safer and more convenient source of acetylene. The chemistry of the CaC2 is not confined to its use as a source of acetylene and its applications are not limited to the known reactions of acetylene. With the CaC2 chemistry being actively developing recently, it may eventually lead to the development of new transformations of alkyne chemistry. Herein, this mini review is focused on the synthesis and application of the CaC2 in biomass transformations.
Article
Nanocomposite Egg Shell Powder with in situ Generated Silver Nanoparticles Using Inherent Collagen as Reducing Agent
Yorseng Krittirash, Suchart Siengchin, Basa Ashok, Anumakonda Varada Rajulu
2020, 5(2): 104-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.003
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in situ generated in poultry hen egg shell powder (ESP) by one step thermal assisted method using the inherently present collagen as a reducing agent. The nanocomposite egg shell powder (NCESP) with in situ generated silver nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antibacterial tests. The prepared NCESP had the spherical AgNPs in the size range of 50–120 nm with most of them from 81 nm to 90 nm. Further, the average size of the AgNPs generated in the NCESP was 88 nm. The X-ray analysis indicated the presence of both AgNPs and AgO nanoparticles (AgONPs) in the NCESP. The possible mechanism of generation of AgNPs and AgONPs in the NCESP was also proposed. The thermal stability of the NCESP was found to be higher than that of the ESP. The NCESP exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against both the Gram negative and positive bacteria. The NCESP made from poultry waste ESP can be utilized as a low-cost antibacterial cleaning powder for house ware and also as low-cost antibacterial filler in polymer matrices to make antibacterial hybrid nanocomposites.
Preliminary Sensitivity Study on an Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Tool via Assessing a Hybrid Timber Building
Tiancheng WU, Meng GONG, Jennifer XIAO
2020, 5(2): 111-116. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.004
Abstract:
In order to address concerns related to global warming and increased atmospheric carbon content, the life cycle assessment (LCA) tool has demonstrated usefulness in the building and construction sector. The LCA is used to evaluate environmental impacts concerning all stages of the building process from “cradle” to “grave”. The LCA helps to promote sustainable development by considering environmental indicators such as stratospheric ozone depletion, eutrophication, global warming potential, and many more. It is of an interest to know the degree of impact on a given environmental indicator if an input is changed in terms of the type or amount of the materials used. The LCA software Athena IE4B was employed to analyze data of a selected timber building. This study is aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of LCA analysis on a hybrid timber building, which was done via two case studies. Case 1 focused on changes in the volume of wood materials, meanwhile Case 2 focused on simultaneous changes in the volume of materials for wood, steel, and concrete. In Case 1, it was observed increasing wood materials increased environmental indicators, with stratospheric ozone depletion being the most sensitive and global warming potential as the least sensitive. On the other hand, Case 2 discovered that proportionally increasing wood materials in relation to steel and concrete materials decreased environmental indicators, with eutrophication being the most sensitive and stratospheric ozone depletion as the least sensitive. This study helped support the feasibility of using Athena IE4B for LCA analysis in the initial assessment of a building.
Liquefaction of Bamboo Biomass and the Production of Three Fractions Containing Aromatic Compounds
Yan Ma, Weihong Tan, Jingxin Wang, Junming Xu, Kui Wang, Jianchun Jiang
2020, 5(2): 117-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.005
Abstract:
Depolymerization of lignin to produce value-added aromatic monomers has attracted increasing attention since these monomers can be used as phenol replacement in production of phenolic resins. Here a one-pot depolymerization of bamboo lignin was investigated to obtain aromatic platforms with low molecular weight using acidic catalyst and ethanol. Three fractions (1#, 2#, and 3#) containing different molecular weight distributions of aromatic compounds could be efficiently extracted using water-organic solvent system via a stepwise fractionation process by gradual removal of solvent. The fractions distribution was found to be primarily dependent on the reaction temperature and time. When the temperature was increased from 160 ℃ to 200 ℃, the yield of fractions containing aromatic products increased significantly from 19.1 wt% to 27 wt%, the same change trend was found by changing the time, and the yield of aromatic products increased from 22.4% to 26.7% with an increase of time from 10 min to 30 min. The bioproducts were characterized by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC NMR). As evidenced by GC-MS spectra, the three fractions were mainly comprised of phenolic derivatives, and the relative contents of phenolic compounds took up about 80% of the total area of each fraction. With the similar physiochemical properties of the fractions, aromatic platforms could provide a new paradigm of bamboo lignin utilization for renewable energy and value-added biochemicals.
Application of Finite Element Analysis in Properties Test of Finger-jointed Lumber
Sheng He, Lanying Lin, Zaixing Wu, Zhangmin Chen
2020, 5(2): 128-136. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.006
Abstract:
Finger-jointed lumber production has now become the most extensively used method for spliced lumbers jointing together endwise. The properties of finger-jointed lumber are affected by many different factors such as the end- pressure. The main mechanical properties to be tested for structural use finger-jointed lumber include the modulus of elasticity in static bending and the bending strength. The most commonly used method for testing these properties at present is the experimental test. In this study, we used finite element method to investigate the end-pressure range, the modulus of elasticity in static bending and the bending strength for Pinus sylvistriv var. finger-jointed lumber under three different fitness ratios (0 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.3 mm). With finite element analysis (FEA) modelling results compared with the experimental test results, it is possible to find the relationship between these two kinds of results and use the FEA to predict the properties of finger-jointed lumber. The FEA applied in the end pressure tests showed a narrower range compared with the modelling results. It indicated that the FEA could be used in the prediction of the end pressure for finger-jointed lumber. The modelling results for modulus of elasticity (MOE) test and bending strength (MOR) test showed about 20% discrepancies compared with the experimental results. Moreover, the MOE modelling results showed the same trend as experimental results under three different fitness levels while the MOR modelling results showed the different trend. It can be concluded that the FEA is a feasible way in analyzing the properties of finger-jointed lumber if the errors could be eliminated properly. Some modifications should be made in order to realize the prediction of the properties of finger-jointed lumber more accurately.
Analysis and Comparison of Tribological Performance of Fatty Acid-based Lubricant Additives with Phosphorus and Sulfur
Haiyang Ding, Xiaohua Yang, Lina Xu, Mei Li, Shouhai Li, Sujing Zhang, Jianling Xia
2020, 5(2): 137-144. doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.04.007
Abstract:
Two environmentally friendly, water-based lubricant additives (phosphorus-containing ricinoleic acid (PRA) and sulfur-containing ricinoleic acid (SRA)) were prepared. The lubrication performance of the additives in a water-based lubricant was tested using a four-ball tribotester. The stainless steel surface was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The additives reduced the coefficient of friction (COF) value, wear scar diameter (WSD) and improved the extreme pressure (PB) value. Water-based fluids containing the PRA exhibited lower COF, WSD, and PB values than the SRA. The good tribological performances of the PRA and SRA were attributed to the synergistic action of long aliphatic chains and highly active phosphorus and sulfur elements.