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Synthesis and application of Granular activated carbon from biomass waste materials for water treatment: A review
Joseph Jjagwe, Peter Wilberforce Olupot, Emmanuel Menya, Herbert Mpagi Kalibbala
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.003
There is an increased global demand for activated carbon (AC) in application of water treatment and purification. Water pollutants that have exhibited a greater removal efficiency by AC included but not limited to heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural organic matter, disinfection by-products, and microplastics. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is mostly used in aqueous solutions and adsorption columns for water treatment. Commercial AC is not only costly, but also obtained from non-renewable sources. This has prompted the search for alternative renewable materials for AC production. Biomass wastes present a great potential of such materials because of their availability and carbonaceous nature. This in turn can reduce on the adverse environmental effects caused by poor disposal of these wastes. The challenges associated with biomass waste based GAC are their low strength and attrition resistance which make them easily disintegrate under aqueous phase. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in production of biomass waste based GAC for water treatment and highlights future research directions. Production parameters such as granulation conditions, use of binders, carbonization, activation methods, and their effect on textural properties are discussed. Factors influencing the adsorption capacities of the derived GACs, adsorption models, adsorption mechanisms, and their regeneration potentials are reviewed. The literature reveals that biomass waste materials can produce GAC for use in water treatment with possibilities of being regenerated. Nonetheless, there is a need to explore 1) the effect of preparation pathways on the adsorptive properties of biomass derived GAC, 2) sustainable production of biomass derived GAC based on life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis, and 3) adsorption mechanisms of GAC for removal of contaminants of emerging concerns such as microplastics and unregulated disinfection by-products.
Quality-related monitoring of papermaking wastewater treatment processes using dynamic multiblock partial least squares
Jie Yang, Yuchen Zhang, Lei Zhou, Fengshan Zhang, Yi Jing, Mingzhi Huang, Hongbin Liu
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.003
Environmental problems have attracted much attention in recent years, especially for papermaking wastewater discharge. To reduce the loss of effluence discharge violation, quality-related multivariate statistical methods have been successfully applied to achieve a robust wastewater treatment system. In this work, a new dynamic multiblock partial least squares (DMBPLS) is proposed to extract the time-varying information in a large-scale papermaking wastewater treatment process. By introducing augmented matrices to input and output data, the proposed method not only handles the dynamic characteristic of data and reduces the time delay of fault detection, but enhances the interpretability of model. In addition, the DMBPLS provides a capability of fault location, which has certain guiding significance for fault recovery. In comparison with other models, the DMBPLS has a superior fault detection result. Specifically, the maximum fault detection rate of the DMBPLS is improved by 35.93% and 12.5% for bias and drifting faults, respectively, in comparison with partial least squares (PLS).
Enzymatic Acylation of Proanthocyanidin Dimers from Acacia mearnsii Bark: Effect on Lipophilic and Antioxidant Properties
Dunchi Xiao, Xinzhu Jin, Yuanyuan Song, Yu Zhang, Xun Li, Fei Wang
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.001
Proanthocyanin (PA) dimers isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark were enzymatically acylated with palmitic acid as the acyl donor by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase on acrylic resin (Novozym 435). The acylation reaction conditions were optimized by comparing the amount of enzyme, the temperature, the reaction solvents, initial water content, substrate molar ratios and reaction time. The highest acylation conversion of 96.53% was achieved under the follow conditions: PA dimers/palmitic acid at a molar ratio of 1: 10 in tert-amyl alcohol; initial water content of 5% at 60 ℃ for 12 h with 30 g/L enzyme dosage. Introducing palmitic acid into PA dimers significantly improved both the lipophilicity and antioxidant properties. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of the PA dimers and their derivatives showed that the lipophilicity of the derivatives were 2.4 times higher than that of the PA dimers. The derivatives exhibited strong antioxidant scavenging capacities, approximately 1.6 times greater than the original dimers. This work is of great significance to expand the application of natural PA dimers in cosmetic and food industries and also lay a foundation for the high value-added utilization of A. mearnsii.
Retrieving Structural Information from Scattering and Attenuation Data of Transparent Wood and (Nano)paper
Yoshiharu Nishiyama
, Available online  
Over the last 15 years, significant number of reports on transparent paper and transparent wood appeared in the literature. The light scattering data or transmission data are often given to describe the optical performance of the material. In addition, the data also contains structural information that can be further analyzed based on scattering theory. Some of the data are re-analyzed herein from structural analysis point of view related to the scattering phenomena. Quantitative analysis on the wavelength dependent optical density of nanopaper suggested that the scatterers are not isolated voids or microfibrils but rather large submicrometric and structural domains. Angular dependence of transparent wood scattering suggests the scattering units of a few micrometers such as cell wall are at the origin of high haze.
Extraction and characterization of myofibrillar proteins from different meat sources: A comparative study
Pavan Kumar Dara, Anjana Geetha, Upasana Mohanty, Mahadevan Raghavankutty, Suseela Mathew, Ravishankar Chandragiri Nagarajarao, Anandan Rangasamy
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.004
In the present study, myofibrillar proteins were extracted from the meat proteins of beef, lamb, chicken, tuna and emperor fish using non-denaturation method, and their physico-chemical and rheological properties were assessed. The myofibrillar proteins of beef, emperor and lamb samples had higher percentage of protein extractability than tuna and chicken samples. The tuna sample showed significantly higher bound bromophenol blue (BPB) value while lamb samples showed lower value (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein of chicken sample was found to have more ionic and hydrogen bonds than all other myofibrillar samples. The disulphide bonds in tuna and lamb myofibrillar protein samples were significantly higher than other three samples (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein samples showed major bands myosin heavy chain, α-actinin, desimin, actin, troponin, tropomyosin and myosin light chain with wider molecular weight distribution in the range of 20-200 ku. The myofibrillar proteins exhibited Newtonian and shear thickening nature behaviour at lower protein concentration (1 mg/mL) as revealed by flow profile and visco-elastic analysis using rheometer.
Quantification of Carpaine and antioxidant properties of extracts from Carica Papaya plant leaves and stalks
Jing Ying Yap, Ching Lik Hii, Sze Pheng Ong, Kuan Hon Lim, Faridah Abas, Kar Yong Pin
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.002
Significance increase in dengue cases have been recordedworldwide every year and South East Asian countries have been badly affected. Currently, antiviral drug to treat dengue is still not available but papaya leaves extract (PLE) have been successfully used in treating dengue patients. Carpaine in PLE is the major active compounds that contributes to the anti-thrombocytopenic activity (raising platelet count in patient's blood). The PLE also contains polyphenols that contribute to antioxidant properties. Studies were carried out to extract and quantify carpaine from young leaves, old leaves and stalks of papaya plant. Carpaine crystalline powders were successfully purified and confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). Young papaya leaves recorded significantly higher amount of carpaine (P < 0.05) as compared with old leaves and stalks. Blending treatment showed significant effect (P < 0.05) on the amount of carpaine extracted from the young and old leaves and blended young leaves showed significantly much higher amount of carpaine as compared with the unblended samples (P < 0.05). In terms of total polyphenols content (TPC), young leaves (both unblended and blended samples) contained significantly higher amount of TPC (P < 0.05) followed by the old leaves and stalks. Results also showed relationship between the TPC and the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay scavenging activities namely IC50 (R2 = 0.9743) and acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) (R2 = 0.9581). Both young and old leaves also showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activities as compared with the stalks in both unblended and blended samples. Young papaya leaves were recommended as source of material to extract carpaine for future development of drug in dengue treatment.
Enhancement of Essential Oil Yield from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves by Lignocellulose Degradation Pre-treatment Using Filamentous Fungi
Tjokorda I. Indira, Khairul Hadi Burhan, Robert Manurung, Ana Widiana
, Available online  , doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.010
The essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves has been widely used as a perfume and traditional remedy, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products ingredient since many years ago. The common technology to recover the oil is hydro-distillation and steam-distillation. However, all oil can not be fully extracted from the leaves by this method due to the recalcitrant structure of leaves that hindrance the access of the solvent. Adding a submerged fermentation as a pre-treatment step prior to the extraction process helped to loosen the lignocellulose structure and enhance oil release in the extraction process. In this study, the raw materials were collected from the natural forest in Buru Island, Maluku, Indonesia. The biological agents applied in these processes were Phanerochaete chrysosporium ITBCC136 and Trichoderma viride ITBCC143. The oil extraction process was conducted by method of steam-distillation, the oil was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and the lignocellulose content in the biomass was measured by the fractionation method. The treatment using T.viride provided the highest increase in yield percentage up to 3.47% as compared with control of 1.45%, with the lowest percentages of the remained cellulose, while the fermentation with the presence of P.chrysosporium did not affect the oil yield even the lignin content was decrease as much as 21%. The percentages of 1, 8-cineole in the oil were almost unchanged, which was about 20% of the oil.