2016, Vol. 1, No. 1

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About the Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts (JBB)
Zhibin He, Jianshu Li, Huining Xiao
2016, 1(1): 1-2. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.32
Preparation of guanidine-modified starch for antimicrobial paper
Kai Liu, Xinxing Lin, Lihui Chen, Liulian Huang
2016, 1(1): 3-6. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.39
Normal paper does not have antimicrobial properties. To impart antimicrobial properties to paper for medical applications, a guanidine-modified starch was prepared via two reaction steps using guanidine hydrochloride (GH) as a modifier, and added to the paper coating formula. FT-IR demonstrated that the GH was successfully grafted onto the starch via the Schiff base reaction. After coating with the modified starch, the antimicrobial performance of the paper against E. coli and S. aureus was evaluated by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the paper treated with the guanidine-modified starch exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against the E. coli and S. aureus. In addition, the dry and wet strength indexes of the coated paper increased by 25% and 100%, respectively, as compared to the control paper.
Advances of cyclodextrin polymers for the delivery of biotech drugs
Yanpeng Liu, Jianshu Li
2016, 1(1): 7-17. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.38
Currently, biological drugs such as gene, protein, and monoclonal antibody are widely applied in the clinic due to their excellent effectiveness. However, they still have some problems, including poor solubility, instability, toxicity, and weak capability to cross cell membranes. Owing to the specific structure of cyclodextrins (CDs) and the advantage of polymeric backbones, various cyclodextrin polymers (CDPs) have been designed as delivery systems for biotech drugs. In this review, after a brief introduction on CDPs and discussion of their physicochemical and biological properties, we will focus on recent advances in the use of CDPs for the delivery of biotech drugs. This review highlights the structure-function relationship of CDPs to their performance in biotech drug delivery. Finally, an outlook will be proposed on the developing trends and challenge in this field.
Potential of cellulose-based materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) separator membranes
Dong Cheng, Xue Yang, Zhibin He, Yonghao Ni
2016, 1(1): 18-21. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.37
Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are the dominant power sources for many consumer electronics, and they can also be large-scale power sources/energy storage devices, which can be credited to their advantages:high efficiency, high energy density, long cycling life. The separator membrane is a critical component of LIB. It is an electron insulator between the cathode and anode electrodes in order to prevent electrical short circuits, and it also functions as an ionic conductor to let ions pass freely in the charging and discharging cycles. The critical parameters to meet high quality separator membranes include:high dimensional/thermal/chemical stability, good wettability towards electrolyte, high mechanical strength, appropriate porosity and pore size distribution. Conventionally, plastic materials, such as polyolefin, are the main materials for manufacturing LIB separator membrane. However, polyolefin separator s have a number of drawbacks such as poor thermal stability and wettability. Cellulosic materials have unique properties, and can meet the quality specifications of LIB separator membranes; in addition, they are abundant, low cost, biodegradable, renewable and sustainable. Therefore, cellulose and its related materials can be promising alternatives to replace polyolefin for LIB separator membranes. In this short review, relevant literature on the topic was reviewed and further development/improvement of cellulose-based LIB separator membrane will be discussed.
Research Article
Effect of hot-water extraction of sugar maple on organosolv delignification and lignin recovery
Chen Gong, Biljana Bujanovic
2016, 1(1): 22-29. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.33
This paper reported a gradual disassembly of the chemical components of hardwood, starting with hot-water extraction (HWE) for the removal of hemicelluloses, followed by organosolv delignification to remove the lignin. Under mild acid conditions, in addition to hemicelluloses, lower molecular weight lignin fractions were removed (~15% of the total lignin) in the HWE pre-treatment; also, the cleavage of the acid-labile lignin-carbohydrate bond took place to some extent. As a result, the HWE pretreatment promoted the subsequent delignification process and facilitated the lignin recovery from the spent liquor, in terms of higher delignification efficiency and higher purity of the lignin recovered from the spent liquor. The effects of the HWE pre-treatment prior to the delignification process were investigated in this study for both the oxygen-pressurized acetone-water (AWO) and the ALCELL processes, with focuses on the delignification efficiency and the properties of the lignin recovered from the process spent liquor.
Poultry keratin based decolorants for dyeing wastewater treatment
Bi Chen, Long Yan, Xia Liu, Jessica L. Worrall
2016, 1(1): 30-35. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.34
One of the challenges in wastewater treatment is the low efficiency in decoloring dyeing wastewater. Chicken feather, as a waste material, has a great potential in decoloring the dyeing wastewater. In this study, a lab synthesized dyeing wastewater prepared with acid blue-A dye was treated with a chicken feather keratin-based composite decolorant KA (keratin agent) using batch decoloration techniques. A modified KA (MKA) was also developed to improve the decoloration efficiency. The decoloration performance of the two decolorants was then evaluated in terms of decoloring rate, at various decolorant dosages, pH, reaction temperature and time. Under optimal conditions, the decoloration rates of the KA and MKA in treating the dyeing wastewater were 91.8% and 94.3%, respectively. IR and TEM results indicated that the KA and MKA decolorants removed the dye stuff from the dyeing wastewater by physical adsorption as well as chemical reactions.
Synthesis of cationic styrene-acrylic acid ester copolymer emulsion for paper sizing
Xinlei Wu, Youjia Cui, Yi Jing, Joseph Mosseler
2016, 1(1): 36-41. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.35
Surface sizing is an effective way to increase paper's water-resistance and printability. The purpose of this study was to study synthesis process to develop an efficient cationic styrene-acrylic acid ester emulsion (SAE) for the surface sizing of paper. Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate methyl chloride (DMC) was used as the cationic monomer, and cationic starch or native starch was used as the emulsion stabilizer to copolymerize with styrene and butyl acrylate. The results indicated that the SAE synthesized with cationic starch and DMC had a high cationic charge density and a high DMC conversion rate. Paper sized with the cationic SAE had higher surface strength and lower Cobb value than the paper sized with other surface sizing agents such as, anionic SAE, and cationic or oxidized starch. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the paper sized with a combination of oxidized starch and cationic SAE had smoother surface morphology when compared to the paper sized with oxidized starch alone, or with oxidized starch and anionic SAE.
Ameliorated enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with a novel modified alkali pretreatment
Guang Yu, Huanfei Xu, Chao Liu, Paul DeRoussel, Chunyan Zhang, Yuedong Zhang, Bin Li, Haisong Wang, Xindong Mu
2016, 1(1): 42-47. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.36
Enzymatic saccharification/hydrolysis is one of the key steps for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses into sustainable biofuels. In this work, corn stover was pretreated with a novel modified alkali process (NaOH + anthraquinone (AQ) + sodium lignosulfonate (SLS)), and then enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme cocktail (cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L), β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188) and xylanase (from thermomyceslanuginosus)) in the pH range of 4.0-6.5. It was found that the suitable pH for the enzymatic saccharification process to achieve a high glucan yield was between 4.2 and 5.7, while the appropriate pH to obtain a high xylan yield was in the range of 4.0-4.7. The best pH for the enzymatic saccharification process was found to be 4.4 in terms of the final total sugar yield, as xylanase worked most efficiently in the pH range of 4.0-4.7, under the conditions in the study. The addition of xylanase in the enzymatic saccharification process could hydrolyze xylan in the substrates and reduce the nonspecific binding of cellulase, thus improving the total sugar yields.
Improving the electroconductivity and mechanical properties of cellulosic paper with multi-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposites
Xiaochuang Shen, Yanjun Tang, Dingding Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Daliang Guo, Gustavo Friederichs
2016, 1(1): 48-54. doi: 10.21967/jbb.v1i1.40
Cellulose is the most abundant renewable polymer in the nature, and cellulosic paper is widely used in our daily life. Conferring electroconductivity to cellulosic paper would allow this conventional material to hold great promise for a wide range of energy-related applications. In the present work, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ oxidation polymerization process and characterized by FT-IR and TEM. Subsequently, the application of the synthesized MWCNT/PANI nanocomposites as a wet-end filler for the production of electro-conductive paper was demonstrated/developed. Results showed that the cellulosic paper was imparted with an electro-conductivity of up to 0.14 S·m-1 while exhibiting a pronounced improvement in mechanical properties as a function of the added MWCNT/PANI nanocomposites.