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Synthesis and application of Granular activated carbon from biomass waste materials for water treatment: A review
Joseph Jjagwe, Peter Wilberforce Olupot, Emmanuel Menya, Herbert Mpagi Kalibbala
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.003
[Abstract](221) [FullText HTML](153) [PDF 1710KB](5)
There is an increased global demand for activated carbon (AC) in application of water treatment and purification. Water pollutants that have exhibited a greater removal efficiency by AC included but not limited to heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural organic matter, disinfection by-products, and microplastics. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is mostly used in aqueous solutions and adsorption columns for water treatment. Commercial AC is not only costly, but also obtained from non-renewable sources. This has prompted the search for alternative renewable materials for AC production. Biomass wastes present a great potential of such materials because of their availability and carbonaceous nature. This in turn can reduce on the adverse environmental effects caused by poor disposal of these wastes. The challenges associated with biomass waste based GAC are their low strength and attrition resistance which make them easily disintegrate under aqueous phase. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in production of biomass waste based GAC for water treatment and highlights future research directions. Production parameters such as granulation conditions, use of binders, carbonization, activation methods, and their effect on textural properties are discussed. Factors influencing the adsorption capacities of the derived GACs, adsorption models, adsorption mechanisms, and their regeneration potentials are reviewed. The literature reveals that biomass waste materials can produce GAC for use in water treatment with possibilities of being regenerated. Nonetheless, there is a need to explore 1) the effect of preparation pathways on the adsorptive properties of biomass derived GAC, 2) sustainable production of biomass derived GAC based on life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis, and 3) adsorption mechanisms of GAC for removal of contaminants of emerging concerns such as microplastics and unregulated disinfection by-products.
Quality-related monitoring of papermaking wastewater treatment processes using dynamic multiblock partial least squares
Jie Yang, Yuchen Zhang, Lei Zhou, Fengshan Zhang, Yi Jing, Mingzhi Huang, Hongbin Liu
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.003
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](137) [PDF 2008KB](1)
Environmental problems have attracted much attention in recent years, especially for papermaking wastewater discharge. To reduce the loss of effluence discharge violation, quality-related multivariate statistical methods have been successfully applied to achieve a robust wastewater treatment system. In this work, a new dynamic multiblock partial least squares (DMBPLS) is proposed to extract the time-varying information in a large-scale papermaking wastewater treatment process. By introducing augmented matrices to input and output data, the proposed method not only handles the dynamic characteristic of data and reduces the time delay of fault detection, but enhances the interpretability of model. In addition, the DMBPLS provides a capability of fault location, which has certain guiding significance for fault recovery. In comparison with other models, the DMBPLS has a superior fault detection result. Specifically, the maximum fault detection rate of the DMBPLS is improved by 35.93% and 12.5% for bias and drifting faults, respectively, in comparison with partial least squares (PLS).
Enzymatic Acylation of Proanthocyanidin Dimers from Acacia mearnsii Bark: Effect on Lipophilic and Antioxidant Properties
Dunchi Xiao, Xinzhu Jin, Yuanyuan Song, Yu Zhang, Xun Li, Fei Wang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.001
[Abstract](69) [FullText HTML](48) [PDF 853KB](0)
Proanthocyanin (PA) dimers isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark were enzymatically acylated with palmitic acid as the acyl donor by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase on acrylic resin (Novozym 435). The acylation reaction conditions were optimized by comparing the amount of enzyme, the temperature, the reaction solvents, initial water content, substrate molar ratios and reaction time. The highest acylation conversion of 96.53% was achieved under the follow conditions: PA dimers/palmitic acid at a molar ratio of 1: 10 in tert-amyl alcohol; initial water content of 5% at 60 ℃ for 12 h with 30 g/L enzyme dosage. Introducing palmitic acid into PA dimers significantly improved both the lipophilicity and antioxidant properties. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of the PA dimers and their derivatives showed that the lipophilicity of the derivatives were 2.4 times higher than that of the PA dimers. The derivatives exhibited strong antioxidant scavenging capacities, approximately 1.6 times greater than the original dimers. This work is of great significance to expand the application of natural PA dimers in cosmetic and food industries and also lay a foundation for the high value-added utilization of A. mearnsii.
Retrieving Structural Information from Scattering and Attenuation Data of Transparent Wood and (Nano)paper
Yoshiharu Nishiyama
[Abstract](75) [FullText HTML](48) [PDF 1286KB](1)
Over the last 15 years, significant number of reports on transparent paper and transparent wood appeared in the literature. The light scattering data or transmission data are often given to describe the optical performance of the material. In addition, the data also contains structural information that can be further analyzed based on scattering theory. Some of the data are re-analyzed herein from structural analysis point of view related to the scattering phenomena. Quantitative analysis on the wavelength dependent optical density of nanopaper suggested that the scatterers are not isolated voids or microfibrils but rather large submicrometric and structural domains. Angular dependence of transparent wood scattering suggests the scattering units of a few micrometers such as cell wall are at the origin of high haze.
Extraction and characterization of myofibrillar proteins from different meat sources: A comparative study
Pavan Kumar Dara, Anjana Geetha, Upasana Mohanty, Mahadevan Raghavankutty, Suseela Mathew, Ravishankar Chandragiri Nagarajarao, Anandan Rangasamy
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.004
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 1660KB](0)
In the present study, myofibrillar proteins were extracted from the meat proteins of beef, lamb, chicken, tuna and emperor fish using non-denaturation method, and their physico-chemical and rheological properties were assessed. The myofibrillar proteins of beef, emperor and lamb samples had higher percentage of protein extractability than tuna and chicken samples. The tuna sample showed significantly higher bound bromophenol blue (BPB) value while lamb samples showed lower value (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein of chicken sample was found to have more ionic and hydrogen bonds than all other myofibrillar samples. The disulphide bonds in tuna and lamb myofibrillar protein samples were significantly higher than other three samples (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein samples showed major bands myosin heavy chain, α-actinin, desimin, actin, troponin, tropomyosin and myosin light chain with wider molecular weight distribution in the range of 20-200 ku. The myofibrillar proteins exhibited Newtonian and shear thickening nature behaviour at lower protein concentration (1 mg/mL) as revealed by flow profile and visco-elastic analysis using rheometer.
Quantification of Carpaine and antioxidant properties of extracts from Carica Papaya plant leaves and stalks
Jing Ying Yap, Ching Lik Hii, Sze Pheng Ong, Kuan Hon Lim, Faridah Abas, Kar Yong Pin
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.002
[Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](60) [PDF 1503KB](0)
Significance increase in dengue cases have been recordedworldwide every year and South East Asian countries have been badly affected. Currently, antiviral drug to treat dengue is still not available but papaya leaves extract (PLE) have been successfully used in treating dengue patients. Carpaine in PLE is the major active compounds that contributes to the anti-thrombocytopenic activity (raising platelet count in patient's blood). The PLE also contains polyphenols that contribute to antioxidant properties. Studies were carried out to extract and quantify carpaine from young leaves, old leaves and stalks of papaya plant. Carpaine crystalline powders were successfully purified and confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). Young papaya leaves recorded significantly higher amount of carpaine (P < 0.05) as compared with old leaves and stalks. Blending treatment showed significant effect (P < 0.05) on the amount of carpaine extracted from the young and old leaves and blended young leaves showed significantly much higher amount of carpaine as compared with the unblended samples (P < 0.05). In terms of total polyphenols content (TPC), young leaves (both unblended and blended samples) contained significantly higher amount of TPC (P < 0.05) followed by the old leaves and stalks. Results also showed relationship between the TPC and the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay scavenging activities namely IC50 (R2 = 0.9743) and acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) (R2 = 0.9581). Both young and old leaves also showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activities as compared with the stalks in both unblended and blended samples. Young papaya leaves were recommended as source of material to extract carpaine for future development of drug in dengue treatment.
Enhancement of Essential Oil Yield from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves by Lignocellulose Degradation Pre-treatment Using Filamentous Fungi
Tjokorda I. Indira, Khairul Hadi Burhan, Robert Manurung, Ana Widiana
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.010
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 1457KB](0)
The essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves has been widely used as a perfume and traditional remedy, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products ingredient since many years ago. The common technology to recover the oil is hydro-distillation and steam-distillation. However, all oil can not be fully extracted from the leaves by this method due to the recalcitrant structure of leaves that hindrance the access of the solvent. Adding a submerged fermentation as a pre-treatment step prior to the extraction process helped to loosen the lignocellulose structure and enhance oil release in the extraction process. In this study, the raw materials were collected from the natural forest in Buru Island, Maluku, Indonesia. The biological agents applied in these processes were Phanerochaete chrysosporium ITBCC136 and Trichoderma viride ITBCC143. The oil extraction process was conducted by method of steam-distillation, the oil was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and the lignocellulose content in the biomass was measured by the fractionation method. The treatment using T.viride provided the highest increase in yield percentage up to 3.47% as compared with control of 1.45%, with the lowest percentages of the remained cellulose, while the fermentation with the presence of P.chrysosporium did not affect the oil yield even the lignin content was decrease as much as 21%. The percentages of 1, 8-cineole in the oil were almost unchanged, which was about 20% of the oil.
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Retrieving Structural Information from Scattering and Attenuation Data of Transparent Wood and (Nano)paper
Yoshiharu Nishiyama
2021, 6(3): 187-194.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.05.001
[Abstract](75) [FullText HTML](53) [PDF 1696KB](20)
Over the last 15 years, significant number of reports on transparent paper and transparent wood appeared in the literature. The light scattering data or transmission data are often given to describe the optical performance of the material. In addition, the data also contains structural information that can be further analyzed based on scattering theory. Some of the data are re-analyzed herein from structural analysis point of view related to the scattering phenomena. Quantitative analysis on the wavelength dependent optical density of nanopaper suggested that the scatterers are not isolated voids or microfibrils but rather large submicrometric and structural domains. Angular dependence of transparent wood scattering suggests the scattering units of a few micrometers such as cell wall are at the origin of high haze.
Opportunities for New Biorefinery Products from Ethiopian Ginning Industry By-products: Current Status and Prospects
Amare Abuhay, Wassie Mengie, Tamrat Tesfaye, Gemeda Gebino, Million Ayele, Adane Haile, Derseh Yillie
2021, 6(3): 195-214.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.001
[Abstract](107) [FullText HTML](77) [PDF 6411KB](5)
The global demand for textile products is rapidly increasing due to population growth, rising living standards, economic development, and fast fashion trends. Ethiopian growth and transformation plan (GTP) gives high priorities for the textile and apparel sectors to transform its agriculturally led economy to an industrial-based economy. To achieve this, the number of textile and apparel industries is rapidly expanding. However, the rapid growth in textile industry is generating mountains and mountains of by-products. In this review, possible applications of cotton stalk and cotton ginning waste in a variety of technologies and products are discussed in Ethiopian context. The finding of this study shows that Ethiopian current cotton cultivating area is about 80 000 hm2, even though the country has a potential of about 3 000 810 hm2 land for cotton cultivation. From the current cultivated area, more than 240 000 t of cotton stalk and 9240 t of cotton ginning trash have been generated as a by-product. But only a very little portion of the cotton stalk is being used as a raw fuel for household purposes and a small portion of cotton ginning trash is used for animal feed. Therefore, these underutilized lignocellulosic biomasses can be used as raw materials for producing different high-value biomaterials and thus country can perceive an economic and environmental benefit. A closer look at the structure and composition of the by-products shows that the whole part of cotton stalk and ginning waste can be used as a source of cellulose which can be exploited for conversion into a number of high-value biomaterials. Thus, conversion of the waste into valuable products can make cotton stalk and ginning by-products an attractive raw material for the production of high value bio-products.
Green CoNi2S4/porphyrin decorated carbon-based nanocomposites for genetic materials detection
Mohammad Reza Saeb, Navid Rabiee, Farzad Seidi, Bahareh Farasati Far, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Eder C. Lima, Mohammad Rabiee
2021, 6(3): 215-222.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.06.001
[Abstract](39) [FullText HTML](31) [PDF 1901KB](11)
A one-pot synthesis method was conceptualized and implemented to develop green carbon-based nanocomposites working as biosensors. Porphyrin was synthesized to adorn the surface of nanocomposites making them highly sensitive for giving rise to π-π interactions between the genetic materials, proteins and porphyrin rings. The hydrogen bond formed between the proteins (analytes) and the nitrogen in the porphyrin structure as well as the surface hydroxyl groups was equally probable. In this context, different forms of porphyrins were incorporated to explore the interrelationship between the surface morphology and the ability of detection of genetic material and/or proteins by the aid of the synthesized structures. This phenomenon was conceptualized to optimize the interactions between the biomolecules and the substrate by reaching significant biosensor application in the presence of Anti-cas9 protein and sgRNA (concentration changed between 10 and 500 n mol/L). Almost full quenching of fluorescence emission was observed after addition of 300 n mol/L of Anti-cas9 protein and 250 n mol/L of sgRNA. Surprisingly, CoNi2S4 provided 12%–29% cytotoxicity in both HEK-293 and PC12 cell lines.
New Ulva lactuca Algae Based Chitosan Bio-composites for Bioremediation of Cd(II) Ions
Eman M. Saad, Reda F. Elshaarawy, Safaa A. Mahmoud, Khalid M. El-Moselhy
2021, 6(3): 223-242.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.002
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML](76) [PDF 4250KB](5)
The current article covers the production of chitosan (CS) from shells of shrimp waste and its utilization in the preparation of eco-friendly imprinting and non-imprinting composites with Ulva lactuca algae (Alg). These bio-composites namely (Imp-Alg-25wt% CS) and (NImp-Alg-25wt% CS) were used for removal of Cd(II) ions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analysis measurements were performed to characterize these bio-composites sorbents. The highest adsorption of these sorbents towards Cd(II) ions was determined as a function of solutions pH, contact time, Cd(II) ion concentration, beads dose, and temperature. The equilibrium experimental data were treated using various mathematical isotherm and kinetic models to approve the maximum bio-sorption capacities of NImp-Alg-25wt% CS and Imp-Alg-25wt% CS (in mg/g). The results exhibited that Imp-Alg-25wt% CS gave higher removal capacity than NImp-Alg-25wt% CS at the same optimum parameters. Pseudo-2nd order dynamic and Langmuir isotherm models were well described in these biosorption processes. Thermodynamically, the removal behavior of Cd(II) using both bio-composites was spontaneous at room temperature. The reusability of the sorbents, NImp-Alg-25wt% CS and Imp-Alg-25wt% CS, showed three cycles. In addition, comparative study was also conducted for Cd(II) removal onto some reported sorbents.
Porous Hafnium-Containing Acid/Base Bifunctional Catalysts for Efficient Upgrading of Bio-Derived Aldehydes
Fanglin Dai, Junrong Luo, Shenghui Zhou, Xingzhen Qin, Detao Liu, Haisong Qi
2021, 6(3): 243-253.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.006
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 2985KB](5)
Novel organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized by using HfCl4 and organic ligand 1H-pyrrole-2, 5-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) via a simple hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Hf-PDCA were characterized by various techniques, such as electron microscope, N2 adsorption/desorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Among them, the porous and nitrogen-containing Hf-PDCA as heterogeneous acid/base bifunctional catalyst was then applied to the catalytic hydrogenation of furfural to produce furfuryl alcohol (FFA). It exhibited excellent catalytic performance, with high conversion (98.8%) and selectivity (98.5%) by using 2-propanol as hydrogen source under a relatively mild condition. Moreover, the Hf-PDCA has strong stability and durability, and can be recovered after the catalyst reaction. In addition, the Hf-PDCA as catalyst can be extended to fabricate corresponding alcohols by catalytic conversion of other biomass derived aldehydes.
Rain tree (Samanea saman) seed oil: Solvent extraction, optimization and characterization
S. Chandra Sekhar, K. Karuppasamy, M. Vimal Kumar, D. Bijulal, N Vedaraman, Ravishankar Sathyamurthy
2021, 6(3): 254-265.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.005
[Abstract](97) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 2369KB](4)
The present investigation reports the soxhlet assisted solvent extraction technique to derive the oil from seeds of the rain tree. The optimization of the factors affecting the extraction process has been carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique, and a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) consisting of three process variables has been developed to optimize the yield of oil. Using the RSM technique, the predicted optimum oil yield of 11.15% at an optimized condition of powder weight of 20 g, volume of solvent of 380 mL, and extraction time of 6 h. The physiochemical properties of the oil showed liquid greenish-yellow with 0.88, 1.473 of specific gravity and refractive index, respectively. Similarly, the moisture content, free fatty acid, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, and peroxide value were found to be 0.16%, 13.615, 27.23, 187.1 mg KOH per g oil, 65.8 g I2 per 100 g, and 4.02 meq O2 per kg, respectively. From the obtained results, it was found that the extracted oil could be used for various applications.
Deflection test and modal analysis of lightweight timber floors
Xinyue Zhao, Yujie Huang, Haiyan Fu, Yunlu Wang, Zheng Wang, Usama Sayed
2021, 6(3): 266-278.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.004
[Abstract](118) [FullText HTML](96) [PDF 3619KB](4)
In order to meet the objective requirements of the safety and comfort of the modern lightweight timber floors, and strengthen the research on the coupling performance of the lightweight timber floors vibration characteristics and the building comfort, this article discusses the floor of a two-story prefabricated lightweight timber building demonstration house. In this paper, the floor structure of a two-story light-weight wooden house has been carried out on structural calculation modal and experimental modal, static uniform load and concentrated load de flection value testing. The evaluation of the deflection value of the floor structure, the mode shape, the coupling of the fundamental frequency mode parameters, and the vibration comfort were also studied. The results show that the fundamental frequency simulation value, one-way modal test value and two-way modal test value of the floor structure all meet the requirements of BS-6472 (BS6472-1: 2008). That is, the floor structure is not lower than 8 Hz design requirements, and meets the frequency of BS-6472(BS6472-1: 2008). The weighted root mean square acceleration is lower than the requirement of 0.45 m/s2; the first three natural frequencies of the floor structure calculated by the finite element simulation are 16.413, 31.847 and 48.921 Hz, and the fundamental frequency mode is the bending vibration in the length and width directions. The second order is the bending mode in the length direction, and the third order is the bending mode in the width direction. The fundamental frequency of the two-way modal test of the floor structure is the first-order bending mode in the X direction; and the second-order natural frequency is the second-order bending vibration shape in the X direction. when the uniform load is mainly the weight of floor own, the simulated maximum deflection value is 1.0658 mm; the simulation is performed according to the standard value of 0.566 kN/m for the uniform load of the floor design, and the simulation is the largest. The maximum deflection value of the simulated floor is 1.47383 mm at its midpoint, which meets the requirements of National Building Code of Canada-2015 (NBCC). The maximum deflection limit of the light wood structure floor system is lower than 3 m and the maximum deflection limit is 2 mm; the six deflection value test lines simulated under a concentrated load of 1 kN all present a parabolic distribution and are symmetrical. The above results has engineering application value for promoting the research on the vibration characteristics of the fabricated lightweight timber floors structure and its optimization design.
Current Issue

Year 2021 Vol. 6 No.3

Table of Contents


ISSN 2369-9698

J. Bioresour. Bioprod.


Started in 2016

Huining Xiao, Prof.

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of New Brunswick, Canada


Jianchun Jiang, Prof.

Chinese Academy of Forestry, China