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Synthesis and application of Granular activated carbon from biomass waste materials for water treatment: A review
Joseph Jjagwe, Peter Wilberforce Olupot, Emmanuel Menya, Herbert Mpagi Kalibbala
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.003
[Abstract](46) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 1710KB](3)
There is an increased global demand for activated carbon (AC) in application of water treatment and purification. Water pollutants that have exhibited a greater removal efficiency by AC included but not limited to heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, natural organic matter, disinfection by-products, and microplastics. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is mostly used in aqueous solutions and adsorption columns for water treatment. Commercial AC is not only costly, but also obtained from non-renewable sources. This has prompted the search for alternative renewable materials for AC production. Biomass wastes present a great potential of such materials because of their availability and carbonaceous nature. This in turn can reduce on the adverse environmental effects caused by poor disposal of these wastes. The challenges associated with biomass waste based GAC are their low strength and attrition resistance which make them easily disintegrate under aqueous phase. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in production of biomass waste based GAC for water treatment and highlights future research directions. Production parameters such as granulation conditions, use of binders, carbonization, activation methods, and their effect on textural properties are discussed. Factors influencing the adsorption capacities of the derived GACs, adsorption models, adsorption mechanisms, and their regeneration potentials are reviewed. The literature reveals that biomass waste materials can produce GAC for use in water treatment with possibilities of being regenerated. Nonetheless, there is a need to explore 1) the effect of preparation pathways on the adsorptive properties of biomass derived GAC, 2) sustainable production of biomass derived GAC based on life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis, and 3) adsorption mechanisms of GAC for removal of contaminants of emerging concerns such as microplastics and unregulated disinfection by-products.
Deflection test and modal analysis of lightweight timber floors
Xinyue Zhao, Yujie Huang, Haiyan Fu, Yunlu Wang, Zheng Wang, Usama Sayed
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.004
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 1715KB](1)
In order to meet the objective requirements of the safety and comfort of the modern lightweight timber floors, and strengthen the research on the coupling performance of the lightweight timber floors vibration characteristics and the building comfort, this article discusses the floor of a two-story prefabricated lightweight timber building demonstration house. In this paper, the floor structure of a two-story light-weight wooden house has been carried out on structural calculation modal and experimental modal, static uniform load and concentrated load de flection value testing. The evaluation of the deflection value of the floor structure, the mode shape, the coupling of the fundamental frequency mode parameters, and the vibration comfort were also studied. The results show that the fundamental frequency simulation value, one-way modal test value and two-way modal test value of the floor structure all meet the requirements of BS-6472 (BS6472-1: 2008). That is, the floor structure is not lower than 8 Hz design requirements, and meets the frequency of BS-6472(BS6472-1: 2008). The weighted root mean square acceleration is lower than the requirement of 0.45 m/s2; the first three natural frequencies of the floor structure calculated by the finite element simulation are 16.413, 31.847 and 48.921 Hz, and the fundamental frequency mode is the bending vibration in the length and width directions. The second order is the bending mode in the length direction, and the third order is the bending mode in the width direction. The fundamental frequency of the two-way modal test of the floor structure is the first-order bending mode in the X direction; and the second-order natural frequency is the second-order bending vibration shape in the X direction. when the uniform load is mainly the weight of floor own, the simulated maximum deflection value is 1.0658 mm; the simulation is performed according to the standard value of 0.566 kN/m for the uniform load of the floor design, and the simulation is the largest. The maximum deflection value of the simulated floor is 1.47383 mm at its midpoint, which meets the requirements of National Building Code of Canada-2015 (NBCC). The maximum deflection limit of the light wood structure floor system is lower than 3 m and the maximum deflection limit is 2 mm; the six deflection value test lines simulated under a concentrated load of 1 kN all present a parabolic distribution and are symmetrical. The above results has engineering application value for promoting the research on the vibration characteristics of the fabricated lightweight timber floors structure and its optimization design.
Quality-related monitoring of papermaking wastewater treatment processes using dynamic multiblock partial least squares
Jie Yang, Yuchen Zhang, Lei Zhou, Fengshan Zhang, Yi Jing, Mingzhi Huang, Hongbin Liu
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.003
[Abstract](37) [FullText HTML](48) [PDF 2008KB](0)
Environmental problems have attracted much attention in recent years, especially for papermaking wastewater discharge. To reduce the loss of effluence discharge violation, quality-related multivariate statistical methods have been successfully applied to achieve a robust wastewater treatment system. In this work, a new dynamic multiblock partial least squares (DMBPLS) is proposed to extract the time-varying information in a large-scale papermaking wastewater treatment process. By introducing augmented matrices to input and output data, the proposed method not only handles the dynamic characteristic of data and reduces the time delay of fault detection, but enhances the interpretability of model. In addition, the DMBPLS provides a capability of fault location, which has certain guiding significance for fault recovery. In comparison with other models, the DMBPLS has a superior fault detection result. Specifically, the maximum fault detection rate of the DMBPLS is improved by 35.93% and 12.5% for bias and drifting faults, respectively, in comparison with partial least squares (PLS).
Rain tree (Samanea saman) seed oil: Solvent extraction, optimization and characterization
S. Chandra Sekhar, K. Karuppasamy, M. Vimal Kumar, D. Bijulal, N Vedaraman, Ravishankar Sathyamurthy
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.005
[Abstract](32) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 3417KB](0)
The present investigation reports the soxhlet assisted solvent extraction technique to derive the oil from seeds of the rain tree. The optimization of the factors affecting the extraction process has been carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique, and a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) consisting of three process variables has been developed to optimize the yield of oil. Using the RSM technique, the predicted optimum oil yield of 11.15% at an optimized condition of powder weight of 20 g, volume of solvent of 380 mL, and extraction time of 6 h. The physiochemical properties of the oil showed liquid greenish-yellow with 0.88, 1.473 of specific gravity and refractive index, respectively. Similarly, the moisture content, free fatty acid, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, and peroxide value were found to be 0.16%, 13.615, 27.23, 187.1 mg KOH per g oil, 65.8 g I2 per 100 g, and 4.02 meq O2 per kg, respectively. From the obtained results, it was found that the extracted oil could be used for various applications.
Dynamical Mechanical Properties of Wood-High Density Polyethylene Composites Filled with Recycled Rubber
Feiyu Tian, Ling Chen, Xinwu Xu
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.007
[Abstract](39) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 1364KB](0)
Application of out-of-service rubber from a variety of sources is of both environment-protecting and resource-saving importance. To that end,recycled tire rubber was utilized as a filler to fabricate wood-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite with enhanced toughening performance using the injection procedure in this work. Dosages of rubber powders were 0,5,10,and 15wt% based on the overall weight of poplar wood flour and HDPE (HDPE: wood flour=70꞉30). The injection-fabricated composites were subjected to a four-cycle repetitive compressing loadings (0-3 kN) and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA,room temperature to 150 ℃,in the dual cantilever mode). It was found that the rubber-filled materials exhibit advantageous energy absorption performance compared to wood-HDPE composites under repetitive compressions. The rubber-filled wood-HDPE composites are thermomechanically labile in an environment with raised temperature. The HDPE matrix substance occupies the predominant role in thermally yielding of the overall composite,typically in the temperature range of 50-75 ℃ resulting in a loss modulus peak. Up to 130-150 ℃,all the composites fully loses their moduli with loss factor (Tan δ) reaching its peak values of 0.30-0.38. To conclude,rubber-filled wood-HDPE is a qualified material applicable in proper temperature range.
Second generation biorefining in Ecuador: Circular bioeconomy, zero waste technology, environment and sustainable development: The nexus
Lourdes M. Orejuela-Escobar, Andrea C. Landázuri, Barry Goodell
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.01.004
[Abstract](86) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 3754KB](0)
The projection of world population growth with concurrent generation of large volumes of agro-industrial waste that negatively affect the environment is of great concern. Therefore, this review article describes the nexus between concepts of Circular Bioeconomy, Zero Waste Technology, Sustainable Development, Biorefineries, and alternatives and research efforts to generate less environmental impact. A brief analysis of the Ecuadorian industry and exports is described, emphasizing the fact that, to improve the Ecuadorian trade balance, it is necessary to increase industrial competitiveness. It is important to have emerging technologies and innovation in order to promote the replacement of fossil-derived raw materials with renewable raw materials and develop more environmentally friendly processes and industries. This paper analyses the state of biomass research and its transformation in Ecuador, together with current pretreatment research on biomass to obtain bioproducts and biofuels in a biorefinery that promotes clean production for the extraction of phytochemicals using green solvents, such as deep eutectic solvents; and technologies to recover high-value added materials with enhanced properties. In conclusion, the need to develop technologies and markets to commercialize high value-added products coming from biorefineries is highlighted, as this will increase the income both in rural and urban areas and will strengthen the productivity and profitability of the Ecuadorian agroindustry. Our goal through this analysis is to improve Ecuador's trade balance while also contributing to the circular bioeconomy that promotes sustainable development.
Packaging and degradability properties of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin nanocomposite films filled water hyacinth cellulose nanocrystals
Henry C. Oyeoka, Chinomso M. Ewulonu, Iheoma C. Nwuzor, Chizoba M. Obele, Joseph T. Nwabanne
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.009
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 2779KB](0)
Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from water hyacinth fiber (WHF) have been studied as a reinforcement for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gelatin nanocomposite. Central composite design was used to study and optimize effects of the PVA, gelatin and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) concentration on tensile strength and elongation of formed films. The results of this study showed that WHF CNC had a diameter range of 20-50 nm produced films reaching 13.8 MPa tensile strength. Thermal stability of the films was improved from 380 ℃ to 385 ℃ in addition of CNCs and maximum storage modulus of 3 GPa were observed when 5 wt% CNC was incorporated. However, water absorption, water vapour permeability (WVP) and moisture uptake of the films decreased in addition of CNC to the PVA-gelatin blends. Moisture uptake decreased from 22.50% to 19.05% while the least WVP when 10 wt% CNC added was 1.64 × 10-6 g/(m•h•Pa). These results show possibility for industrial application of WHF CNC and PVA-gelatin blends in biodegradable films for on-the-go food wrappers.
Enzymatic Acylation of Proanthocyanidin Dimers from Acacia mearnsii Bark: Effect on Lipophilic and Antioxidant Properties
Dunchi Xiao, Xinzhu Jin, Yuanyuan Song, Yu Zhang, Xun Li, Fei Wang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.001
[Abstract](39) [FullText HTML](26) [PDF 853KB](0)
Proanthocyanin (PA) dimers isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark were enzymatically acylated with palmitic acid as the acyl donor by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase on acrylic resin (Novozym 435). The acylation reaction conditions were optimized by comparing the amount of enzyme, the temperature, the reaction solvents, initial water content, substrate molar ratios and reaction time. The highest acylation conversion of 96.53% was achieved under the follow conditions: PA dimers/palmitic acid at a molar ratio of 1: 10 in tert-amyl alcohol; initial water content of 5% at 60 ℃ for 12 h with 30 g/L enzyme dosage. Introducing palmitic acid into PA dimers significantly improved both the lipophilicity and antioxidant properties. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of the PA dimers and their derivatives showed that the lipophilicity of the derivatives were 2.4 times higher than that of the PA dimers. The derivatives exhibited strong antioxidant scavenging capacities, approximately 1.6 times greater than the original dimers. This work is of great significance to expand the application of natural PA dimers in cosmetic and food industries and also lay a foundation for the high value-added utilization of A. mearnsii.
Bacterial cellulose/glycolic acid/glycerol composite membrane as a system to deliver glycolic acid for anti-aging treatment
Bricard Mbituyimana, Lin Mao, Sanming Hu, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Kun Chen, Lina Fu, Weiwei Zhao, Zhijun Shi, Guang Yang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.003
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 3775KB](0)
Glycolic acid (GA), as an anti-aging skincare ingredient, plays a pivotal role in anti-aging treatment. However, its benefits could be overshadowed due to its side effects including skin burning and irritation when overused. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly pure form of cellulose, biosynthesized in the form of a swollen membrane by several kinds of bacteria that was demonstrated to modulate the release of model drugs owing to its porous and 3D fibrous network structure, and glycerol (GL), as a plasticizer, could enhance the controlled drug delivery. Herein, we report a topical controlled drug delivery system based on BC membrane, GA and GL for controlling sustainable release of GA to reduce its side effects on the skin, while maintaining its prolonged and maximum therapeutic effect. The results showed that the incorporation of GL increased the malleability and flexibility of BC/GA/GL membrane, as compared with BC/GA membrane. In addition, the GL enhanced the control of the GA delivery, as evidenced by a higher swelling capacity and thereby a slower release of the GA from BC/GA/GL membrane. More importantly, in vitro study indicated that both BC/GA and BC/GA/GL membranes could effectively stimulate endogenous collagen synthesis in NIH3T3 cells owing to the release of GA, and that BC/GA/GL membrane is more conducive to a long-term cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of NIH3T3 and HaCaT cells due to its lower and sustainable release of GA than BC/GA membrane. This study suggests the BC/GL/GA composite membrane holds great promise as an appealing platform to control the release of GA to greatly promote renewal of skin cells for effective anti-aging treatment.
Chitin derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with ultrahigh specific surface area and tailored hierarchical porosity for high performance supercapacitors
Si Zheng, Jianwei Zhang, Hongbing Deng, Yumin Du, Xiaowen Shi
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.002
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 2808KB](0)
In this study, we report the fabrication of nitrogen rich activated nanosized carbon with hierarchical micro/mesoporous and ultrahigh specific surface area by template-free and one-step carbonization-activation method, which greatly simplified the process and avoided the waste of reagents. Chitin nanoparticles were prepared by a mechanical induced sol-gel transition process in NaOH/Urea solvent and a subsequent carbonization utilizing NaOH for activation and urea for N doping, resulting in activated carbon (ACNC-800) with extraordinary specific surface area (2631 m2/g) and high nitrogen content (7.1%). Further characterization and electrochemical tests demonstrate high electrochemical performance of the activated nanocarbon. Under the current density of 0.5 A/g, the specific capacitance of the three-electrode system is 245 F/g and that of the two-electrode system is 227 F/g. The assembled capacitors exhibit superior rate performance and good cycle stability (98% capacitance retention after 10000 charge-discharge cycles). This work introduces a simple and efficient strategy to prepare N-doped carbon with hierarchical porosity applied to high performance supercapacitors.
Retrieving Structural Information from Scattering and Attenuation Data of Transparent Wood and (Nano)paper
Yoshiharu Nishiyama
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 1286KB](1)
Over the last 15 years, significant number of reports on transparent paper and transparent wood appeared in the literature. The light scattering data or transmission data are often given to describe the optical performance of the material. In addition, the data also contains structural information that can be further analyzed based on scattering theory. Some of the data are re-analyzed herein from structural analysis point of view related to the scattering phenomena. Quantitative analysis on the wavelength dependent optical density of nanopaper suggested that the scatterers are not isolated voids or microfibrils but rather large submicrometric and structural domains. Angular dependence of transparent wood scattering suggests the scattering units of a few micrometers such as cell wall are at the origin of high haze.
Extraction and characterization of myofibrillar proteins from different meat sources: A comparative study
Pavan Kumar Dara, Anjana Geetha, Upasana Mohanty, Mahadevan Raghavankutty, Suseela Mathew, Ravishankar Chandragiri Nagarajarao, Anandan Rangasamy
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.004
[Abstract](41) [FullText HTML](29) [PDF 1660KB](0)
In the present study, myofibrillar proteins were extracted from the meat proteins of beef, lamb, chicken, tuna and emperor fish using non-denaturation method, and their physico-chemical and rheological properties were assessed. The myofibrillar proteins of beef, emperor and lamb samples had higher percentage of protein extractability than tuna and chicken samples. The tuna sample showed significantly higher bound bromophenol blue (BPB) value while lamb samples showed lower value (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein of chicken sample was found to have more ionic and hydrogen bonds than all other myofibrillar samples. The disulphide bonds in tuna and lamb myofibrillar protein samples were significantly higher than other three samples (P < 0.05). The myofibrillar protein samples showed major bands myosin heavy chain, α-actinin, desimin, actin, troponin, tropomyosin and myosin light chain with wider molecular weight distribution in the range of 20-200 ku. The myofibrillar proteins exhibited Newtonian and shear thickening nature behaviour at lower protein concentration (1 mg/mL) as revealed by flow profile and visco-elastic analysis using rheometer.
Integrated lignocellulosic biorefinery: Gateway for production of second generation ethanol and value added products
Amisha Patel, Amita R. Shah
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.001
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 2281KB](0)
An increasing demand for energy and depleting petroleum sources has elevated the need for producing alternative renewable resources. Owing to the prominence of lignocellulosic biomass as bio-renewable and the most abundant resource on Earth, this critical review provides perceptions into the potential of lignocellulosic biomass for production of second generation (2G) ethanol and value added products in a biorefinery manner. The efficient utilization of all three components of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) would play a significant role in the economic viability of cellulosic ethanol. The pretreatment method is the key to the success of bioconversion processes and greatly influences the economics of biorefinery process. Biotechnology tools and process engineering play pivotal roles in development of integrated processes for production of biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials from lignocellulosic biomass. Although, lignocellulosic biorefinery has ample scopes, commercial production of biofuels and chemicals is still challenging. In this context, this review entails concept of lignocellulose biorefinery, latest developments in 2G ethanol production process, importance and market potential of 2G ethanol as renewable fuel and value added chemicals, integration of processes, challenges for integrated production of fuel together with value added chemicals and future directions.
Opportunities for New Biorefinery Products from Ethiopian Ginning Industry By-products: Current Status and Prospects
Amare Abuhay, Wassie Mengie, Tamrat Tesfaye, Gemeda Gebino, Million Ayele, Adane Haile, Derseh Yillie
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.001
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 3942KB](0)
The global demand for textile products is rapidly increasing due to population growth, rising living standards, economic development, and fast fashion trends. Ethiopian growth and transformation plan (GTP) gives high priorities for the textile and apparel sectors to transform its agriculturally led economy to an industrial-based economy. To achieve this, the number of textile and apparel industries is rapidly expanding. However, the rapid growth in textile industry is generating mountains and mountains of by-products. In this review, possible applications of cotton stalk and cotton ginning waste in a variety of technologies and products are discussed in Ethiopian context. The finding of this study shows that Ethiopian current cotton cultivating area is about 80 000 hm2, even though the country has a potential of about 3 000 810 hm2 land for cotton cultivation. From the current cultivated area, more than 240 000 t of cotton stalk and 9240 t of cotton ginning trash have been generated as a by-product. But only a very little portion of the cotton stalk is being used as a raw fuel for household purposes and a small portion of cotton ginning trash is used for animal feed. Therefore, these underutilized lignocellulosic biomasses can be used as raw materials for producing different high-value biomaterials and thus country can perceive an economic and environmental benefit. A closer look at the structure and composition of the by-products shows that the whole part of cotton stalk and ginning waste can be used as a source of cellulose which can be exploited for conversion into a number of high-value biomaterials. Thus, conversion of the waste into valuable products can make cotton stalk and ginning by-products an attractive raw material for the production of high value bio-products.
New Ulva lactuca Algae Based Chitosan Bio-composites for Bioremediation of Cd(II) Ions
Eman M. Saad, Reda F. Elshaarawy, Safaa A. Mahmoud, Khalid M. El-Moselhy
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.04.002
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 4398KB](0)
The current article covers the production of chitosan (CS) from shells of shrimp waste and its utilization in the preparation of eco-friendly imprinting and non-imprinting composites with Ulva lactuca algae (Alg). These bio-composites namely (Imp-Alg-25wt% CS) and (NImp-Alg-25wt% CS) were used for removal of Cd(II) ions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and elemental analysis measurements were performed to characterize these bio-composites sorbents. The highest adsorption of these sorbents towards Cd(II) ions was determined as a function of solutions pH, contact time, Cd(II) ion concentration, beads dose, and temperature. The equilibrium experimental data were treated using various mathematical isotherm and kinetic models to approve the maximum bio-sorption capacities of NImp-Alg-25wt% CS and Imp-Alg-25wt% CS (in mg/g). The results exhibited that Imp-Alg-25wt% CS gave higher removal capacity than NImp-Alg-25wt% CS at the same optimum parameters. Pseudo-2nd order dynamic and Langmuir isotherm models were well described in these biosorption processes. Thermodynamically, the removal behavior of Cd(II) using both bio-composites was spontaneous at room temperature. The reusability of the sorbents, NImp-Alg-25wt% CS and Imp-Alg-25wt% CS, showed three cycles. In addition, comparative study was also conducted for Cd(II) removal onto some reported sorbents.
Quantification of Carpaine and antioxidant properties of extracts from Carica Papaya plant leaves and stalks
Jing Ying Yap, Ching Lik Hii, Sze Pheng Ong, Kuan Hon Lim, Faridah Abas, Kar Yong Pin
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.002
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](28) [PDF 1503KB](0)
Significance increase in dengue cases have been recordedworldwide every year and South East Asian countries have been badly affected. Currently, antiviral drug to treat dengue is still not available but papaya leaves extract (PLE) have been successfully used in treating dengue patients. Carpaine in PLE is the major active compounds that contributes to the anti-thrombocytopenic activity (raising platelet count in patient's blood). The PLE also contains polyphenols that contribute to antioxidant properties. Studies were carried out to extract and quantify carpaine from young leaves, old leaves and stalks of papaya plant. Carpaine crystalline powders were successfully purified and confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). Young papaya leaves recorded significantly higher amount of carpaine (P < 0.05) as compared with old leaves and stalks. Blending treatment showed significant effect (P < 0.05) on the amount of carpaine extracted from the young and old leaves and blended young leaves showed significantly much higher amount of carpaine as compared with the unblended samples (P < 0.05). In terms of total polyphenols content (TPC), young leaves (both unblended and blended samples) contained significantly higher amount of TPC (P < 0.05) followed by the old leaves and stalks. Results also showed relationship between the TPC and the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay scavenging activities namely IC50 (R2 = 0.9743) and acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) (R2 = 0.9581). Both young and old leaves also showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activities as compared with the stalks in both unblended and blended samples. Young papaya leaves were recommended as source of material to extract carpaine for future development of drug in dengue treatment.
Experimental evaluation of rice husk ash for applications in geopolymer mortars
G. Ogwang, P.W. Olupot, H. Kasedde, E. Menya, H. Storz, Y. Kiros
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.008
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](32) [PDF 774KB](0)
Rice husks obtained from upland and lowland rice varieties were characterized for composition and content of ash. Each of the rice husk varieties was fired at temperatures of 600, 800 and 900 ℃ for a soaking period of 3 h. The resultant rice husk ash was analyzed for oxide composition and crystallinity using X-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques, respectively. The generated amorphous ash with the highest silica content, together with metakaolin, aggregate, water, and an alkaline activator was employed to formulate geo-polymer mortar prisms according to the standard EN 196–1. Results showed that the content of ash in the varieties ranged from 18.3% to 28.6% dry basis. Out of this, 89 wt%–96 wt% was silica, with amorphous and crystalline forms of silica obtained at 600 ℃ and 900 ℃, respectively, regardless of the rice variety. However, at 800 ℃, the silica in the generated ash exhibited both amorphous and crystalline forms. The amorphous ash generated at 600 ℃ was used in formulation of geopolymer mortars. Compressive and flexural strength of the formulated mortar after 7 days of curing was 1.5 and 1.3 MPa, respectively. These results reveal the firing protocol to form pozzolanic ash, with potential applications in mortar production.
Enhancement of Essential Oil Yield from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves by Lignocellulose Degradation Pre-treatment Using Filamentous Fungi
Tjokorda I. Indira, Khairul Hadi Burhan, Robert Manurung, Ana Widiana
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.010
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](27) [PDF 1457KB](0)
The essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L. leaves has been widely used as a perfume and traditional remedy, cosmetics and pharmaceutical products ingredient since many years ago. The common technology to recover the oil is hydro-distillation and steam-distillation. However, all oil can not be fully extracted from the leaves by this method due to the recalcitrant structure of leaves that hindrance the access of the solvent. Adding a submerged fermentation as a pre-treatment step prior to the extraction process helped to loosen the lignocellulose structure and enhance oil release in the extraction process. In this study, the raw materials were collected from the natural forest in Buru Island, Maluku, Indonesia. The biological agents applied in these processes were Phanerochaete chrysosporium ITBCC136 and Trichoderma viride ITBCC143. The oil extraction process was conducted by method of steam-distillation, the oil was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and the lignocellulose content in the biomass was measured by the fractionation method. The treatment using T.viride provided the highest increase in yield percentage up to 3.47% as compared with control of 1.45%, with the lowest percentages of the remained cellulose, while the fermentation with the presence of P.chrysosporium did not affect the oil yield even the lignin content was decrease as much as 21%. The percentages of 1, 8-cineole in the oil were almost unchanged, which was about 20% of the oil.
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Synthesis and Applications of Fungal Mycelium-based Advanced Functional Materials
Sehrish Manan, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Mazhar Ul-Islam, Omar Mohammad Atta, Guang Yang
2021, 6(1): 1-10.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.01.001
[Abstract](176) [FullText HTML](93) [PDF 1567KB](14)
Over the last couple of decades, the introduction of living systems to material science for the synthesis of functional materials from biological resources is receiving immense consideration. This is also in accordance with the need for green and sustainable development of new materials. For example, the growing concerns of the degradation of synthetic plastics are shifting the direction of materials-related research to the use of polymeric materials acquired from renewable resources. For example, the fungal mycelium-based materials are produced by growing the vegetative part of mushroom-forming fungi on different organic substrates. Such fungi are known for their ability to degrade agricultural wastes such as straws and sawdust. The mycelium-based composites having tailored structural, physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties are relying on the strain, feeding substrate, and the manufacturing process. The mycelium cell wall mainly contains the chitin, glucans, proteins, and lipids, whose concentrations depend upon the feeding substrate that ultimately defines the final properties of the synthesized materials. The mycelium-based functional materials with tunable properties are synthesized by selecting the desired components and the synthesis method. The pure and composites of stiff, elastic, porous, less dense, fast-growing, and low-cost mycelium-derived materials with efficient antimicrobial, antioxidant, and skin whitening properties pave their way in various applications such as construction, packaging, medicine, and cosmetics. This review describes the synthesis and structural organization of mycelium-based materials. It further discusses the effect of different factors on the material properties. Finally, it summarizes different applications of mycelium-based materials in medicine, cosmetics, packaging, and construction fields.
Recent Advancements in Applications of Chitosan-based Biomaterials for Skin Tissue Engineering
Ahmed Madni, Rozina Kousar, Naveera Naeem, Fazli Wahid
2021, 6(1): 11-25.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.01.002
[Abstract](130) [FullText HTML](74) [PDF 1601KB](10)
The use of polymer based composites in the treatment of skin tissue damages, has got huge attention in clinical demand, which enforced the scientists to improve the methods of biopolymer designing in order to obtain highly efficient system for complete restoration of damaged tissue. In last few decades, chitosan-based biomaterials have major applications in skin tissue engineering due to its biocompatible, hemostatic, antimicrobial and biodegradable capabilities. This article overviewed the promising biological properties of chitosan and further discussed the various preparation methods involved in chitosan-based biomaterials. In addition, this review also gave a comprehensive discussion of different forms of chitosan-based biomaterials including membrane, sponge, nanofiber and hydrogel that were extensively employed in skin tissue engineering. This review will help to form a base for the advanced applications of chitosan-based biomaterials in treatment of skin tissue damages.
Plant Extract-loaded Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane for Potential Biomedical Applications
Atiya Fatima, Yasir Sumayia, Mohd.Shariq Khan, Sehrish Manan, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Mazhar Ul-Islam
2021, 6(1): 26-32.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2020.11.002
[Abstract](144) [FullText HTML](90) [PDF 1900KB](6)
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been extensively explored as biomaterial for various biomedical applications owing to its non-toxic nature and unique structural morphology and impressive physico-chemical and mechanical properties. However, its high production cost and lack of antimicrobial activity have restricted its large-scale production and therapeutic applications. Therefore, the current study is aimed to devise a strategy for low-cost BC production and develop its composite with bioactive materials to bless it with antimicrobial activity. Herein, 5 mm thick reticulated fibrous and highly porous BC was produced by utilizing the wasted rotten tomatoes as the production medium. The produced bacterial cellulose waste (BCW) (i.e., produced from wastes) was ex-situ modified with bioactive plant extract (PE) obtained from Euclea schimperi, and the bactericidal activity of the developed BCW/PE was evaluated against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli through disc diffusion and colony forming unit (CFU) count methods. The BCW/PE composite showed high bactericidal activities against S. aureus and produced clear inhibition zone whereas negligible activity was observed against E. coli, indicating its bactericidal activity mainly against the Gram-positive bacterium. Overall, this study illustrates that there is a huge potential for developing valuable biomaterials from food wastes and utilizing their liquid holding capabilities for value-added applications in medical and pharmaceutical fields.
Experimental Investigation on Variability in Properties of Amazonian Wood Species Muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei) and Maçaranduba (Manilkara huberi) Focusing Guitar Fingerboards Manufacturing
Roseli Felix da Silva Ribeiro, José Flávio Silveira Feiteira, Jayme Pereira de Gouvêa, Alexandre Furtado Ferreira
2021, 6(1): 33-38.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.006
[Abstract](205) [FullText HTML](96) [PDF 838KB](2)
In face of scarcity in the supply of non-traditional Brazilian woods properly treated for use in high quality musical instruments, pieces of Amazonian wood species muiracatiara (Astronium lecointei) and maçaranduba (Manilkara huberi) purchased in the common internal Brazilian timber market were examined. These species were pre-selected for use in fingerboards of acoustic and electric guitars due to similar properties with ebony (Diospyros crassiflora). Variabilities of elastic modulus parallel to grain and density were investigated inside wooden pieces. In addition, referred parameters were used in calculation of speed of sound. Statistical tests were performed in order to compare both species and revealed inequality for variances of dynamic elastic modulus (Ed) and speed of sound, but equality for density. Equality of means was also examined via unequal variance t-test. Despite color differences, lower variability of M. huberi led to the indication of this species as likely capable to substitute satisfactorily ebony in fingerboards manufacturing.
Oxidation of Furfural to Maleic Acid and Fumaric Acid in Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) under Vanadium Pentoxide Catalysis
Jingwen Shao, Yong Ni, Lifeng Yan
2021, 6(1): 39-44.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.005
[Abstract](99) [FullText HTML](78) [PDF 1052KB](3)
Furfural is an alternative feedstock and has been used for the production of maleic acid (MA) and fumaric acid (FA) by an oxidation process. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as the green solvents while sodium chlorate was used as an oxidant and vanadium pentoxide was used as the catalyst at 70–90 ℃ under atmospheric pressure. It was found that several acidic DESs are valid, such as acetic acid/choline chloride (AA/ChCl) and propionic acid/choline chloride (PA/ChCl), and AA/ChCl DES was selected as the solvent for the conversion. The optimal DES is AA/ChCl, and the effect of the amount of oxidant, time, and temperature on the yield of the MA and FA has been systematically studied, and the conversion of furfural can reach 100% while the yield of the MA and FA reached 66.5% under reaction temperature of 80 ℃ for 12 h, which provides a new green route to synthesis valuable monomers from furfural.
Optimization and Kinetic Studies for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Colocynthis Vulgaris Shrad Seeds Shell for Bioethanol Production
Igwilo Christopher Nnaemeka, Egbuna Samuel O, Onoh Maxwell I, Asadu O. Christain, Onyekwulu Chinelo S
2021, 6(1): 45-64.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.02.004
[Abstract](109) [FullText HTML](98) [PDF 2491KB](3)
The key process parameters for the hydrolysis and fermentation of Colocynthis vulgaris Shrad seeds shell (CVSSS) were optimized using the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Kinetic study was also carried out. The proximate analysis of the CVSSS was done by the method of the Association of Organic and Applied Chemistry (AOAC). Enzymatic hydrolysis was experimented by using Aspergillus Niger as a crude enzyme isolated from soil at sawdust dump site and screened for cellulosic activities. Factors that affected the hydrolysis of the CVSSS were screened by using the Greco-Latin square design of experiment. However, for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, factors that affected the fermentation of the CVSSS were screened by using the same Greco-Latin square design of experiment. Meanwhile, the result of the proximate analysis revealed that the CVSSS had 73.54% cellulose which could be converted to bioethanol. It was established that temperature, pH and time had significant effect on hydrolysis, while the optimum results were obtained at 46.8 ℃, 3.32 d, 5.68 and 59.87% for temperature, time, pH and glucose yield, respectively. Temperature, yeast dosage, pH and time had significant effect on fermentation, while the optimum results from optimization were found to be 33.58 ℃, 7.0, 3.55 d, 1.65 g per 50 mL and 25.6% for temperature, pH, time, yeast dosage and ethanol yield, respectively. The kinetics of both the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation agreed with the Michealis-Menten kinetic model with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9708 and 0.8773, respectively. However, from the error analysis, the experimental and predicted values had a very good relationship as described by Michaelis-Menten model.
Wood Plastic Composites Based Wood Wall's Structure and Thermal Insulation Performance
Lu Zhang, Zehua Chen, Haoran Dong, Shuai Fu, Lan Ma, Xiaojun Yang
2021, 6(1): 65-74.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.01.005
[Abstract](95) [FullText HTML](99) [PDF 2115KB](2)
In order to solve the problem of poor thermal insulation in the current wood-plastic building, two kinds of structural wood wall integrated with wood plastic composite (WPC) are designed, and the thermal insulation performances of the walls are studied. The results show that the WPC integrated wall with frame-shear structure has a good stability, and the excellent performance of the WPC can be fully realized. Wall studs and wall panels are important factors affecting the thermal performance of the walls. Wood plastic materials can meet the thermal performance requirements of the walls. The single-layer frame walls and double-layer frame walls integrated with the WPC both have a good thermal performance. According to 'Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings (GB 50189-2015)', the heat transfer coefficient of the single-layer frame wall integrated with 20 mm thick WPC wall boards and WPC wall studs is 0.414 W/(m2·K), which can meet the standard of wall thermal level Ⅱt and is suitable for cold areas. The heat transfer coefficient of the double-layer frame wall integrated with 50 mm thick WPC wall panel and WPC wall studs is 0.207 W/(m2·K), which can meet the standard of wall thermal level Ⅰt and is suitable for severe cold areas.
Preparation and Properties of Cellulose Nanocomposite Fabrics with in situ Generated Silver Nanoparticles by Bioreduction Method
Battu Deeksha, Vajja Sadanand, N. Hariram, Anumakonda Varada Rajulu
2021, 6(1): 75-81.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.01.003
[Abstract](102) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 1686KB](5)
The aim of the present study was to develop antibacterial cellulose (cotton) nanocomposite fabrics (CNCFs) with in situ generated silver nanoparticles using medicinal plant Vitex leaf extract. The developed CNCFs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and antibacterial tests. Further, these CNCFs possessed good antibacterial activities. These CNCFs prepared using simple and environmentally friendly method can be considered for medical applications in, such as, surgical aprons, wound cleaning, wound dressing, and hospital bed materials.
Current Issue

Year 2021 Vol. 6 No.1

Table of Contents


ISSN 2369-9698

J. Bioresour. Bioprod.


Started in 2016

Huining Xiao, Prof.

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of New Brunswick, Canada


Jianchun Jiang, Prof.

Chinese Academy of Forestry, China