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Plastic Crisis Underscores Need for Alternative Sustainable-Renewable Materials
Su Shiung Lam, Changlei Xia, Christian Sonne
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.06.001
[Abstract](1) [PDF 856KB](0)
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Dynamical mechanical behaviors of rubber-filled wood fiber composites with urea formaldehyde resin
Feiyu Tian, Xinwu Xu
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.05.004
[Abstract](2) [PDF 1835KB](0)
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Wood composites glued with thermosetting synthetic resins tend to show inadequate damping performance caused by the cured resinous matrix. Waste rubber maintains prominent elasticity and is feasible to be an optional modifier. To that end, composite panels of granulated tire rubber (GTR) powders and thermal-mechanically pulped wood fibers were fabricated in this study. Urea formaldehyde (UF) resin was applied as the bonding agent (10% based on wood/rubber total weight). Dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) was conducted to disclose the thermo-mechanical behaviors of the rubber-filled wood fiber composites. Influence of two technical parameters, i.e., GTR powder size (0.55-1.09 mm) and addition content (10%, 20% and 30% based on wood/rubber total weight), was specifically discussed. The results showed that storage modulus (E') of the rubber-filled composite decreased while loss factor (tan δ) increased monotonously along with elevated temperature. A steady "plateau" region among 110-170℃ was found where both E' and tan δ keep constant. Accordingly, tan δ showed two peak values at 103-108 and 231-233℃ due to glass transition of lignin and thermal degradation of hemicellulose, respectively. Addition of rubber fillers resulted in lower bending and internal bonding strengths as well as storage modulus values. When the temperature was above 183℃, all the rubber-filled composites showed higher tan δ values than the control. The findings above fully demonstrate the improved damping performance of the UF-bonded wood fiber composites on account of rubber component. Further work is still needed to optimize the rubber/fiber interfacial bonding strength.
Evaluating process of auto-hydrolysis prior to kraft pulping on production of chemical pulp for end used paper-grade products
Wenchao Jia, Miaofang Zhou, Chenfeng Yang, He Zhang, Meihong Niu, Haiqiang Shi
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.05.002
[Abstract](1) [PDF 1256KB](0)
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The objective of this work is to systematically evaluate the performance of the hydrolysis-based kraft pulping process and associated pulp and black liquor characteristics. Acacia wood chips were auto-hydrolyzed under various severities, then the hydrolyzed wood chips were kraft pulping. The results indicated that the yield of pulp significantly dropped with intensifying the auto-hydrolysis severity. Meanwhile, the removal rate of pentosan reached 98.6% in the screened pulp at the P-factor of 1 000. The fiber length, fines and fiber crimp of the screened pulp were not affected by the auto-hydrolysis treatment. Auto-hydrolyzed pulps deteriorated fibrillation and beating response of the pulp in a refining process. However, fiber length and fines changed obviously after beating treatment. After auto-hydrolysis, the tensile index of the paper matrices decreased, some particle substances were found on the surface of the pulp fiber, and the solid and organic content of the black liquor were improved.
Nanocellulose and its derived composite electrodes toward supercapacitors: Fabrication, properties, and challenges
Junlei Xiao, Huiling Li, Hua Zhang, Shuijian He, Qian Zhang, Kunming Liu, Shaohua Jiang, Gaigai Duan, Kai Zhang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.05.003
[Abstract](2) [PDF 9244KB](0)
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With the increasing demand for sustainable energy storage systems, the development of various advanced materials from a renewable source is imminent. Owing to the advantages of high specific surface area, unique nanostructure, modifiability, and excellent mechanical strength, nanocellulose integrated with other conductive materials, such as nanocarbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has been emerged as promising candidate materials for green and renewable energy storage devices. Besides, nanocellulose-derived carbon materials with good electrical conductivity and tunable microstructures can be fabricated via simple carbonization, which has been widely used as supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we present a comprehensive review that focuses on the development of nanocellulose materials for sustainable energy storage, particularly on supercapacitors. The fabrication strategies of nanocellulose-derived hybrid materials are first presented and summarized, followed by highlighting the use of natural nanocellulose for constructing composite electrode materials including two-dimension film electrodes, and three-dimension aerogel electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, the possible limitations and potentials of nanocellulose in supercapacitors are outlooked.
Mechanism of selective hydrolysis of alginates under hydrothermal conditions
Taku Michael Aida, Yasuaki Kumagai, Richard Lee Smith Jr
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.04.001
[Abstract](1) [PDF 1038KB](0)
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Mechanisms of selective hydrolysis of alginates under hydrothermal conditions were investigated by comparing reactivities of sodium alginate (Na-ALG, 960 ku) solutions and calcium alginate (Ca-ALG) gels as substrates. Under hydrothermal conditions (150℃), hydrolysis of Na-ALG gave product molecular weights of 223, 66, 26 and 17 ku while those of Ca-ALG gave product molecular weights of 340, 102, 45 and 31 ku for reaction times of 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, respectively. The ratios of mannuronic acid (M) to guluronic acid (G) varied only slightly (from 1.3 to 1.2) for Na-ALG over the range of reaction times at 150℃, while ratios (M/G) for Ca-ALG exhibited a remarkable decrease (from 1.1 to 0.8). Diad sequence of alginate products obtained for NaALG were 17%, 23%, 27% and 31% (GG); 30%, 32%, 36% and 38% (MM); and 53%, 46%, 37% and 32% (GM+MG); while for Ca-ALG they were 18%, 22%, 24% and 33% (GG); 26%, 23%, 26% and 18% (MM); and 56%, 54%, 50% and 48% (GM+MG). Reaction mechanisms are proposed for hydrolysis of alginate solutions and alginate gels under hydrothermal conditions; depolymerization of alginates into monomers and monomeric sequences can be controlled not only by hydrothermal conditions, but also by varying the physical state (solution, gel) of the starting materials.
High-fructose corn syrup production and its new applications for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and value-added furan derivatives: Promises and challenges
Aristide Laurel Mokale Kognou, Sarita Shrestha, Zi-Hua Jiang, Chunbao(Charles) Xu, Fubao Sun, Wensheng Qin
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.03.004
[Abstract](1) [PDF 2261KB](0)
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High fructose corn syrup has been industrially produced by converting glucose to fructose by glucose isomerases, tetrameric metalloenzymes widely used in industrial biocatalysis. Advances in enzyme engineering and commercial production of glucose isomerase have paved the way to explore more efficient variants of these enzymes. The 5-hydroxymethylfurfural can be produced from high fructose corn syrup catalytic dehydration, and it can be further converted into various furanic compounds chemically or biologically for various industrial applications as a promising platform chemical. Although the chemical conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into furanic compounds has been extensively investigated in recent years, bioconversion has shown promise for its mild conditions due to the harsh chemical reaction conditions. This review discusses protein engineering potential for improving glucose isomerase production and recent advancements in bioconversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural into value-added furanic derivatives. It suggests biological strategies for the industrial transformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.
Effects of a poly(hydroxyalkanoate) elastomer and kraft pulp fibres on biocomposite properties and three-dimensional (3D) printability of filaments for fused deposition modelling
Sandra Rodríguez-Fabià, Gary Chinga-Carrasco
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.03.002
[Abstract](1) [PDF 3946KB](0)
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Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a useful technique that allows the creation of objects with complex structures by deposition of successive layers of material. These materials are often from fossil origin. However, efforts are being made to produce environmentally friendly materials for 3D printing. The addition of lignocellulosic fibres to a polymer matrix is one of the alternatives to replace, for instance, glass fibres in composites as reinforcing materials. The fields of biocomposites and 3D printing open innovative application areas for pulp fibres from the pulp and paper industry. In this work, biocomposites of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) and kraft pulp fibres were prepared in order to find a suitable formulation for filaments for 3D printing. The effect of two different types of kraft fibres (bleached (B) and unbleached (U)) and of PHA on the mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposites was assessed. The addition of 30% kraft fibres to PLA resulted in an increase of the tensile modulus from 3074 to ~4800 MPa. In the case of biocomposites containing PHA (50% PLA/20% PHA/30% kraft) the increase in modulus was more moderate (PLA+PHA+U:3838 MPa, and PLA+PHA+B:3312 MPa). The tensile strength of PLA (66 MPa) increased to 77 MPa in PLA+kraft biocomposites, while a reduction in strength was observed for PLA+PHA+U (43 MPa) and PLA+PHA+B (32 MPa). Filaments prepared with PLA, PHA and bleached and unbleached pulp fibres showed similar printability of complex geometries, demonstrating that unbleached pulp fibres could also be utilized in the preparation of biocomposites with good mechanical performance and 3D printing properties.
Effects of chitin nanocrystals on coverage of coating layers and water retention of coating color
Ruoshi Gao, Yi Jing, Yeyan Ni, Qiwen Jiang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.11.003
[Abstract](2) [PDF 2410KB](0)
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This study assessed the applicability of chitin nanocrystals prepared by 2, 2, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-1- Piperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation in traditional papermaking coating color systems. The α-chitin nanocrystals (CTNCs) with different carboxyl content, size, and morphology were prepared from crab shells by alkali pretreatment and TEMPO-mediated oxidation in the water at pH 10, and then the ratio of CTNCs to latex was applied to traditional coating color system to replace part of latex. The results showed that when the amount of NaClO added as co-oxidant in the oxidation was 15.0 mmol/g of chitin, the carboxyl content of alkali-pretreated CTNCs was up to 0.76 mmol/g. The amount of carboxyl groups presented a linear relation with the degree of individualization of nanocrystals and dispersion. When the ratio of latex to CTNCs was 90:10, the water retention value of the coating was 92% lower than that of the pure latex system, and the rheological property was better. The relationship between the addition amount of CTNCs and the surface strength and the coverage of coating layers were also studied, and results showed that when the ratio of latex to CTNCs was 95:5, the surface strength was the highest of 1.45 m/s, and the coverage of coating layers rate reached the highest of 78%.
Characterization of natural fiber from manau rattan (Calamus manan) as a potential reinforcement for polymer-based composites
Linhu Ding, Xiaoshuai Han, Lihua Cao, Yiming Chen, Zhe Ling, Jingquan Han, Shuijian He, Shaohua Jiang
 doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.11.002
[Abstract](0) [PDF 1780KB](0)
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Researches on novel natural fibers in polymer-based composites will help promote the invention of novel reinforcement and expand their possible applications. Herein, in this study, novel cellulosic fibers were extracted from the stem of manau rattan (Calamus manan) by mechanical separation. The chemical, thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of manau rattan fibers were comprehensively analyzed and studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), single fiber tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Component analysis results showed that the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents of C. manan fibers were 42wt%, 20wt%, and 27wt%, respectively. The surface of the rattan fiber was hydrophilic according to the oxygen/carbon ratio of 0.49. The C. manan has a crystalline index of 48.28%, inducing a maximum degradation temperature of 332.8℃. This reveals that it can be used as a reinforcement for thermoplastic composites whose operating temperature is below 300℃. The average tensile strength can reach (273.28 ±52.88) MPa, which is beneficial to improve the mechanical properties of rattan fiber reinforced composites. The SEM images displayed the rough surface of the fiber, which helped to enhance the interfacial adhesion between the fibers and matrices in composites. These results indicate the great potential of C. manan fibers as the reinforcement in polymer-based composites.
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Mini Review
Is engineered wood China's way to carbon neutrality?
Christian Sonne, Changlei Xia, Su Shiung Lam
2022, 7(2): 83-84.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.03.001
[Abstract](33) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 246KB](8)
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Review
Sources, production and commercial applications of fungal chitosan: A review
Tanzina Huq, Avik Khan, David Brown, Natasha Dhayagude, Zhibin He, Yonghao Ni
2022, 7(2): 85-98.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.01.002
[Abstract](27) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 3629KB](2)
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Chitosan is a type of biopolymer that can be obtained from animal/marine sources, and it can also be extracted or produced from agriculture waste products like mushroom or different fungal sources after the chitin deacetylation. Depending on the size of mushroom farm, the amount of waste ranges between 5% and 20% of the production volume. The cell wall of the filamentous fungi, a good source of chitin, offers an easy way to extract chitin. The physicochemical characteristics such as molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of fungal chitosan can be controlled compared to chitosan obtained from crustacean sources. Fungal sourced chitosan can be used in food, pharmaceutical or biomedical applications for different applications, for example, as an antimicrobial agent, coating material, water purification or bio-pesticide. This review mainly focused on the extraction of chitin from mushroom or different fungal sources and also showed some applications of commercial chitosan products.
Article
A mixed acid methodology to produce thermally stable cellulose nanocrystal at high yield using phosphoric acid
Khairatun Najwa Mohd Amin, Alireza Hosseinmardi, Darren J. Martin, Pratheep K. Annamalai
2022, 7(2): 99-108.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.12.002
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 1911KB](4)
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Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) with distinctive shape-morphology, enhanced thermal stability and dispersibility is essential for overcoming the challenges in processing polymer/CNC nanocomposites through melt compounding at elevated temperatures. This study shows a mixed acid hydrolysis method to produce CNC with improved thermal stability and high productivity. The use of phosphoric acid (H3PO4), as a mild acid, in combination with a strong acid either sulphuric acid (H2SO4) or hydrochloric acid (HCl) leads to reduced use of strong acids and low impact on our environment. The influences of acid combination and sequence of addition on the production yield were investigated by retaining the proportion of H3PO4 to corrosive acid (H2SO4 and HCl) 4 to 1, and solid to liquid ratio 1:75. This methodology has enabled to isolate CNC with higher thermal stability, dispersibility and productivity in terms of amount acid used 1 g of CNC, as compared with single acid hydrolysis. The CNC produced using the combination of H3PO4 and HCl exhibits high thermal stability, dispersibility and rod-like shape morphology with length and width of (424 ± 86) and (22 ± 3) nm, respectively. Moreover, this approach has reduced H3PO4 consumption by 54% as compared with single acid hydrolysis method for the production of same amount of CNC.
Biochar derived from non-customized matamba fruit shell as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment
Gotore Obey, Munodawafa Adelaide, Rameshprabu Ramaraj
2022, 7(2): 109-115.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.12.001
[Abstract](13) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 784KB](3)
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This study of Matamba shell reviled them as material with outstanding surface morphology, elemental and kinetic mechanism characteristics. Mutamba biochar revealed irregular honeycomb morphological transformation from the field emission scanning electron microscope after pyrolysis at 600 ℃ for 2 h. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed high content of carbon (72.68wt%), nitrogen (14.14wt%) and oxygen (10.35wt%) on the biochar surface. The available oxygen composition provides enough polarization ability for high iodine adsorption (43.65 mmol/g) from the experimental data which were significantly induced by weak van der Waals forces and π-π and π-stacking interaction on the biochar surface and its micropores. The carbon content above 50% in ash rich biochar with an increase in pyrolysis can be ascribed to elements incorporated into aromatic or heterocyclic ring system established through preferential loss of oxygen at 600 ℃ pyrolysis. The adsorption kinetics were conducted to evaluate the equilibrium adsorption of the novel material and Elovich and Intra particle diffusion better described well the kinetic adsorption through Iodine adsorption than pseudo first order and pseudo second order models. Elovich was the best model to fit the adsorption kinetics with 45.41 mmol/(g·min) adsorption rate. The second order Akaike Information Criterion (38.26), adjusted correlation coefficient R2 (0.9898) and sum of squares error (1.442) were used to fit the data. Consequently, the biochar in this study can serve as a promising green material for efficiently removing organic and inorganic contaminants from the environmental water ecosystem. The environmental significance of biochar will be of fundamental meaning to rural areas in developing countries in aquatic contaminants immobilization for water reuse. These results indicate that the Matamba fruit shells has the possibility to be used as an eco-friendly and low-cost effective adsorbent for anionic dye removal from the water environment. They also demonstrate the immense potential of the fruit shell waste to produce high performance biochar as an alternative green carbonaceous material that can be applied to adsorb organic and inorganic unwanted constituencies from wastewater as well as improvement of waste management in developing countries at a low cost. Its application as a pathway mitigation for diminishing greenhouse gasses and reducing the global warming potential could not be underestimated.
Hydrochar-embedded carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel as stable soil water retention and nutrient release agent for plant growth
Yufei Zhang, Xinyue Tian, Qiuyue Zhang, Huifang Xie, Bingyu Wang, Yanfang Feng
2022, 7(2): 116-127.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.03.003
[Abstract](17) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 2552KB](1)
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The cellulose-based hydrogel has been widely applied for soil water retention and nutrient re-lease agents for several decades. Embedding the inorganic materials into hydrogels is an excellent strategy to improve the inherent limits of the cellulose-based hydrogel. Notably, municipal sludge-derived hydrochar (HC) has reduced the environmental burden and offered a potential hydrogel carrier to control water-retention and nutrient-release. However, the above function for plant growth of hydrochar-embedded carboxymethyl cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid) (CMC-g-PAA/HC) is unknown, and relevant reports are lacking. This study investigated the water retention, nutri-ent release behavior, and effect of germination and plant growth of CMC-g-PAA/HC hydrogel. Characterization results showed that HC was successfully incorporated into CMC-g-PAA/HC with 6.0% higher thermostability, 7.2-21.0% lower swelling ratio (SR) in water, and substantial SR in phosphate solution (P-solution). The water loss rate of CMC-g-PAA/HC in P-solution or wa-ter owned a more significant temperature response (7.9-15.0 folds) than CMC-g-PAA (8.2-10.0 folds). Moreover, 4.0% higher n value and more 18.5% released P for CMC-g-PAA/HC were also observed. These phenomena were due to restricting the polymer chains movement and the wa-ter molecules diffusion inside the hydrogels with HC. Phytotoxicity assessments showed that HC in CMC-g-PAA/HC could effectively alleviate the inhibition effects on rape germination retained with 78.3% germination vigor and 80.0% germination ratio, even dramatically improved plant growth to 28 d. The results of this study demonstrated a new route for developing eco-friendly CMC-g-PAA/HC hydrogel, advantageous as a water retention agent and nutrient carrier in arid and semiarid regions.
Comparative phytochemical, thin layer chromatographic profiling and antioxidant activity of extracts from some Indian herbal drugs
Md Sohail Akhtar, Mohamed Rafiullah, Wegdan Aly Shehata, Amzad Hossain, Mohammed Ali
2022, 7(2): 128-134.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2022.01.001
[Abstract](1) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 470KB](0)
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Natural antioxidants play a significant role to prevent cell breaking and regenerate cells. Three plants native to India named dwarf morning-glory (Evolvulus alsinoides), Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis) and chicory (Chicorium intybus) are used as medicine in India traditionally to treat diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity as well as to compare phytochemical profiles of the aqueous extracts of the selected three plants. The dried plant powder was extracted with ethanol individually by using the Soxhlet method for eight hours and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. Similarly, the air-dried powder was ex-tracted with water, and the water was evaporated. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of the extracts was determined by using TLC densitometer and the antioxidant activity was deter-mined by the conventional 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The TLC profile shows that there are no similarities of retention factor (Rf) values among the plant extracts which means all three plants contain different chemical compounds. The antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts at different concentrations show different antioxidant activities. Percentage inhibition is dose dependent, as doses are increasing then percentage inhibition is also increasing for all three plant extracts. Among the selected plants, the highest activity was found in C. intybus and the lowest was in E. alsinoides. The order of the antioxidant activity among the selected plants was C. intybus < F. bengalensis < E. alsinoides. Based on the TLC profile and antioxidant activities, the highest activity of the selected plant species was evaluated.
Improvement of quality of Ginkgo biloba seeds powder by solid-state fermentation with Eurotium cristatum for developing high-value ginkgo seeds products
Minmin Zou, Jiarui Cao, Wen Zhang, Chao Tang, Fuliang Cao, Erzheng Su
2022, 7(2): 135-144.   doi: 10.1016/j.jobab.2021.10.002
[Abstract](4) [FullText HTML](10) [PDF 1665KB](2)
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In this study, we investigated the feasibility of Ginkgo biloba seeds powder by solid-state fermentation with Eurotium cristatum for developing high-value ginkgo seeds products. The optimum fermentation medium was consisted of 10 g of 40-mesh ginkgo seeds powder loaded in 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask with 50% (w/w) of water content, 4% (w/w) of MgSO4 and 5% (w/w) of KH2PO4 addition. The optimum fermentation conditions were pH 5.0, 2 × 108 CFU/g of inoculum size, 3 mL of sterilized water supplemented every two days during the four days of fermentation. Through fermentation, the spore number of E. cristatum was improved by about 36 times with the production of lovastatin reaching (54.10±0.16) μg/g. The antioxidant activity of fermented ginkgo seeds powder also got obvious enhancement, which could help eliminate excess free radicals produced by normal metabolism. The content of free amino acids increased by 82.32%. Except that the sugar was consumed in some degree, the other nutritional and functional components were well preserved while the content of detrimental ginkgolic acids was reduced by 44.97%. In addition, fermented ginkgo seeds powder possessed better digestibility and showed pleasant orange-like smelling. In conclusion, the quality of ginkgo seeds powder was remarkably improved through solid-state fermentation by using E. cristatum, which could be a promising way for functional applications of ginkgo seeds.
Current Issue

Year 2022 Vol. 7 No.2

Table of Contents

CN32-1890/S7

ISSN 2369-9698

J. Bioresour. Bioprod.

Quarterly

Started in 2016

Editor-in-chief
Huining Xiao, Prof.

University of New Brunswick, Canada

 

Jianchun Jiang, Prof.

Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry, China